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οὐδεὶς δὲ πώποτε Σωκράτους κτλ.: but no one ever saw Socrates do, or heard him say, anything profane or impious. Σωκράτους is gen. with verbs of perception. G. 1102; H. 742. The two participles πράττοντος and λέγοντος are supplementary. G. 1582; H. 982.

οὐδὲ γάρ: the neg. extends also to σκοπῶν.

τῶν πάντων: the universe.

ᾗπερ: ea quidem ratione, qua. To serve ethical or teleological purposes, Socrates brought the consideration of the universe into his discussions (cf. i. 4, iv. 3). Xenophon is careful, however, to say that he did not discourse thereon after the manner of natural philosophers (in order to preclude the assumption that Socrates, by such discussions, laid himself open to the charge of ἀσέβεια, as did other philosophers, e.g., Anaxagoras). Cf. οἱ γὰρ ἀκούοντες ἡγοῦνται τοὺς ταῦτα (viz. τά τε μετέωρα [celestial phenomena] καὶ τὰ ὑπὸ γῆς) ζητοῦντας οὐδὲ θεοὺς νομίζειν Plato Apol. 18 c.

καλούμενος: attrib. participle. G. 1559; H. 965.

τῶν σοφιστῶν: here, as in iv. 2. 1, philosophers, without unfavorable added meaning, which σοφιστής did not have before the time of Socrates. For its use in the less favorable sense, see i. 6. 13. The student may consult, on this subject, the histories of philosophy, as Zeller, Schwegler, Ueberweg, etc.; and, especially, Grote's famous discussion (Hist. of Greece, c. lxvii).

κόσμος: the world of order, corresponds exactly to the Lat. mundus, and is said to have been first employed in this sense by Pythagoras (about 500 B.C.).

ἔφυ: the origin of the world was a favorite subject of speculation with the earliest Greek philosophers. ‘Ay, sir, the world is in its dotage; and yet the cosmogony, or creation of the world, has puzzled philosophers of all ages. What a medley of opinions have they not broached upon the creation of the world!’ Goldsmith, Vicar of Wakefield, c. 14.

τίσιν ἀνάγκαις: by what eternal laws.

φροντίζοντας τὰ τοιαῦτα: pondering such subjects. τοιαῦτα replaces a cognate acc. implied in the verb. G. 1054; H. 716 and b. Cf. μέγιστον and ταὐτά 13, and τὰ μετέωρα φροντιστής Plato Apol. 18B. So Aristophanes (Clouds 94) calls Socrates's house a φροντιστήριον, and (ibid. 102) the philosophers generally μεριμνοφροντισταί ponderers of trifles.

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