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, , τό, familiar as the article of Attic Greek, is generally a demonstrative or relative pronoun in epic. When so used, the forms that are commonly proclitic in Attic are accented in the accompanying text (“, , οἵ, αἵ”). E. g.

1. Demonstrative use: A 120,λεύσσετε γὰρ τό γε πάντες”, ‘for you all see this.’ A 272,οὔ τις τῶν, οἳ νῦν βροτοί εἰσιν”, ‘no one of those who are now mortals.’ A 20,τά τ᾽ ἄποινα”, ‘this ransom’ (that I hold).

2. Used substantively, the demonstrative is often not to be distinguished from a personal pronoun. E. g. A 9, γάρ”, ‘for he.’ 1.29,τὴν δ᾽ ἐγὼ οὐ λυ?σω”, ‘but her I will not free.’ A 43,τοῦ δ᾽ ἔκλυε Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων”, ‘and him Phoebus Apollo heard.’ A 55,τῷ”, ‘for him’ (cf. § 176).

3. A noun is sometimes added, in apposition. E. g. 1.348, δ᾽ ἀέκουσ᾽ ἅμα τοῖσι γυνὴ κίεν”, ‘and she, the woman,’ etc.; but to avoid awkwardness, one may say, ‘and the woman.’ So too A 409, B 402.

4. Relative use: A 36, “τόν” = Attic “ὅν”, ‘whom.’ A 72, “τήν” = Attic “ἥν”, ‘which’ (prophecy). A 125, “τὰ ... τά” = Attic “ ... ταῦτα”. A 249, “τοῦ” = Attic “οὗ”. A 336, “” = Attic “ὅς”.

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