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1. Sigma of -σαι and -σο is regularly lost between two vowels, except as noted in 2 (below). The MSS. show contraction in some of the resulting forms (cf. a). E. g. A 74, “κέλεαι” (present indicative of “κέλομαι”). A 401, “ὑπελυ?σαο” (first aorist indicative of “ὑπο-λύομαι”). A 418, “ἔπλεο” (second aorist indicative of “πέλομαι”). A 32, “νέηαι” (present subjunctive of “νέομαι”). A 207, “πίθηαι” (second aorist subjunctive of “πείθομαι”). A 232, “λωβήσαιο” (aorist optative of “λωβάομαι”). A 210, “ἕλκεο” (present imperative of “ἕλκομαι”). Z 229, “δύνηαι” (present subjunctive of the “-μι” verb, “δύναμαι”). Od. 4.388, “δύναιο” (present optative).

a. Examples of contraction: A 203, “ἴδῃ” for “ἴδηαι” (the equivalent Attic form is the active “ἴδῃς”, which is perhaps a better reading). A 160, “μετατρέπῃ” for “μετατρέπεαι” (possibly this should be written “μετατρέπἐ”).

2. In the indicative and imperative of the non-thematic inflection, sigma of -σαι and -σο is usually retained. E. g. A 393, “δύνασαι”. X 85, “ἵστασο” (imperative). 16.585, “κεχόλωσο” (pluperfect). These forms are the same in Attic.

a. But here too sigma is often lost between two vowels. E. g. 16.497, “μάρναο” (imperative) for “μάρνασο” (cf. Attic “ἵστασο”). A 76, “σύνθεο” (imperative) for “σύν-θεσο” (Attic “συνθοῦ”). 16.585, “ἔσσυο” (second aorist or pluperfect). E 284, “βέβληαι” (= “βέβλησαι”, perfect). And sigma of “-σο” is regularly lost in the first aorist. Cf. “ὑπελυ?σαο” (above), and I 645, “ἐείσαο”.

3. Examples of -μεσθα: A 140, “μεταφρασόμεσθα”. A 444, “ἱλασόμεσθα”.

4. -αται and -ατο (for “-νται” and “-ντο”) are found in the following instances:

a. Added to some themes of the perfect and pluperfect indicative, ending in a vowel. E. g. A 239, “εἰρύαται”. A 251, “ἐφθιαθ᾽”, i. e. “ἐφθίατο”. B 90, “πεποτήαται. Γ” 183, “δεδμήατο.” A 657, “βεβλήαται. Ξ” 28, “βεβλήατο”, and I 3, “βεβολήατο” (= “ἐβέβληντο”).

b. In a few non-thematic presents and imperfects of the indicative, chiefly “ἧμαι” and “κεῖμαι”. E. g. B 137, “ἥατ᾽”(“αι”)= “ἕαται”. I 628, “ἕαται” (for “ἕ-” instead of “ἥ-” see § 29). 18.509, “ἥατο” (= “ἧντο”). 18.515, “ῥυ?ατ᾽”(“ο”) (imperfect).

c. Added to themes of the perfect and pluperfect indicative ending in a consonant; then a smooth or middle mute is regularly changed to the corresponding rough before the ending. The formation is illustrated by Xenophon's “ἀντιτετάχαται” (Anab. IV, 8, 5)=“ἀντιτεταγμένοι εἰσί”. E. g. B 25, “ἐπιτετράφαται. Π” 481, “ἔρχαται” (“ἔργω”, ‘hem in’). Cf. 23.284, “ἐρηρέδαται” (“ἐρείδω”). The Attic equivalents are periphrastic forms.

d. “-ατο” for “-ντο” is regularly found in the optative mood. E. g. A 256, “κεχαροίατο”. A 257, “πυθοίατο”.

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