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μὴ ὑπάρχοντας: an integral part of the subst. inf. clause; hence the μή. ὑπάρχειν has here its primitive meaning, to be the first cause, to be there to begin with, as opposed to ἀμύνεσθαι. Cf. Leg. ix. 879 d μήτε γὰρ ὑπάρχων μήτε ἀμυνόμενος τὸ παράπαν τολμάτω πληγαῖς τὸν τοιοῦτον νουθετεῖν. ἄρχειν is also similarly used in Leg. ix. 869 c ἀμυνόμενος ἄρχοντα χειρῶν πρότερον, but with a different feeling. The asyndeton of two opposites is not unfrequent.—

μεταστρέψαντες: which is regularly transitive (e.g. Rep. ii. 367 a μεταστρέφοντες αὐτοῖν τὴν δύναμιν, utriusque vim pervertentes) is used here absolutely in the sense reversing the matter. Cf. Hom. β 67 θεῶν δ᾽ ὑποδείσατε μῆνιν,|μή τι μεταστρέψωσιν (cause a reverse) ἀγασσάμενοι κακὰ ἔργα.

τῇ ἰσχύι: corresponds to εὖ ἔχων τὸ σῶμα, as τέχνῃ to πυκτικὸς γενόμενος, so that both are considered dependent upon training.

οὐκ ὀρθῶς: a case of litotes.

οἱ μὴ χρώμενοι: equiv. to οἳ ἂν μὴ χρῶνται ὄρθῶς. Hence the μή.

35 f.

πρὸς απαντας: as above, 456 d.

ἔμβραχυ: denotes what is otherwise expressed by ὡς ἐν βραχεῖ (συνελόντι) εἰπεῖν, and shows that the following περὶ ὅτου ἂν βούληται is absolutely without limitation.

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    • Plato, Gorgias, 456d
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