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αὐτίκα: is one of the ways of introducing an example in Greek. Cf. Prot. 359 e πᾶν τοὐναντίον ἐστὶν ἐπὶ οἵ τε δειλοὶ ἔρχονται καὶ οἱ ἀνδρεῖοι. αὐτίκα εἰς τὸν πόλεμον οἱ μὲν ἐθέλουσιν ἰέναι, οἱ δὲ οὐκ ἐθέλουσιν. The addition of πρῶτον shows that there are still other conflicts between their views; i.e. in reference to the nature and value of punishment.

εἶναι: is thrown forward for the sake of emphasis, as ἔστι above. After ἡγοῦμαι, νομίζω, and similar verbs the pred. is often found without a copula. Cf. 473 a.

ἕν: with this are connected other points of difference.

εἶεν: see on 466 c.

ἆρα: the position here is still more remarkable than in 467 e and 476 a.—The whole weight of the question falls on ἂν τυγχάνῃ δίκης καὶ τιμωρίας. The former, δίκη, usually denotes simply the carrying out of the law, the infliction of justice; the latter, τιμωρία, the fine or penalty which falls to the injured person or the state. These are both external demands on the criminal, called forth by his crime, and by which an expiation of it is to be effected. On the other hand, κόλασις is the discipline which the guilty party himself undergoes, designed to prevent further transgression; while ζημία (470 a) is only the injury or damage which he sustains in expiating his crime. From the outset Socrates shows that, even according to the view of his opponent, wrongdoing does not give happiness under all conditions. This point is not made superfluous by the discussion of 469 c-470 c; for there the question concerns δύναμις, not εὐδαιμονία.

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hide References (7 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (7):
    • Plato, Gorgias, 466c
    • Plato, Gorgias, 467e
    • Plato, Gorgias, 469c
    • Plato, Gorgias, 470a
    • Plato, Gorgias, 470c
    • Plato, Gorgias, 473a
    • Plato, Gorgias, 476a
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