: whose fortune it was.
The original meaning of ὑπάρχειν
, “to be as a foundation,” “to begin with,” becomes gradually weaker as time goes on. The dat. in the pred. here passes over into the acc. as subj. of the inf. (ἱκανούς
) as is frequently the case, especially in long periods. Kr. 55, 2, 5, 7. The cause here lies in the necessary addition of αὐτούς
ἀρχήν τινα κτἑ.
: the word ἀρχή
can be applied to any position of power, whether in a democracy or not. Thuc. ii. 65. 9 says of Athens ἐγίγνετό τε λόγῳ μὲν δημοκρατία, ἔργῳ δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ πρώτου ἀνδρὸς
(i.e. Pericles) ἀρχή
. The idea of τυραννίς
is well known; cf. Nepos, Milt. 8. 3
combined with τυραννίς
is not infrequently (479 a
, Thuc. iii. 62. 3) used of oligarchs, but it is also a designation of princes, both smaller and greater (524 e
, 525 d
αἴσχιον καὶ κάκιον
: declare as strongly as possible the inappropriateness of the practice of virtue for such men; it becomes for them really a shame and an evil.
τούτξις τοῖς ἀνθρώποις
: pur posely placed at the end of the clause (as above διὰ τὴν αὑτῶν ἀνανδρίαν
), and to emphasize the contrast, ἀνθρώπων
, which is usually wanting, is added in the next clause after τῶν πολλῶν.— οἷς ἐξὸν κτἑ.
: such connexion of the subordinate to the principal clause is idiomatic in Greek and Latin. Cf. Symp.
174 e οἷ μὲν γὰρ εὐθὺς παῖδά τινα τῶν ἔνδον ἀπαντήσαντα ἄγειν οὗ κατέκειντο οἱ ἄλλοι
. Nep. Thrasy. 4. 1
“huic . . . corona a populo data est; quam quod . . . non vis expresserat nullam habuit invidiam.
” Notice the necessary shift in ἐξόν
and μηδενὸς . . . ὄντος
due to the change from impersonal to personal. The participles are both practically concessive, the neg. μή
being due to the conditional coloring.
τῶν πολλῶν κτἑ.
: notice the assonance (παρίσωσις
) in νόμον, λόγον, ψόγον