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ὅστις . . . θηρίον: antithetical with οἵ γε ἄνθρωποι above.

μετὰ λόγου: with reason (opposed to ἀλογίστως), so that he gives to himself, and can give to others, account of what he does. Cf. Tim. 28 a τὸ μὲν δὴ νοήσει μετὰ λόγου περιληπτόν (to be received by the intelligence with reason), ἀεὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ὄν (being always the same), τὸ δ᾽ αὖ δόξῃ μετ̓ αἰσθήσεως ἀλόγου δοξαστόν (but the other, conceived by the opinion, with the help of irrational sense), γιγνόμενον καὶ ἀπολλύμενον, Phaedr. 256 a δὲ πρὸς ταῦτα μετ᾽ αἰδοῦς καὶ λόγου ἀντιτείνει. See on 351 e.

οὐ γὰρ κτἑ.: a thought widely current among the Greeks, from which Theognis has derived the ethical con tent of his words 583 f. ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν προβέβηκεν (that which is past) ἀμήχανόν ἐστι γενέσθαι | ἀργά: τὰ δ᾽ ἐξοπίσω, τῶν φυλακὴ μελέτω. Cf. Simon. Frag. 69 τὸ γὰρ γεγενημένον οὐκέτ᾽ ἄρεκτον (unaccomplished) ἔστα:, Dem. III. 6 τὰ μὲν δὴ τότε πραχθέντα οὐκ ἄν ἄλλως ἔχοι, Hor. Car. iii. 29. 45 ff.

τοῦ μέλλοντος: subst., cf. Parm. 137 a τρέμοντι τὸ μέλλον.

ἵνα . . . κολασθέντα: the theory of prevention, which meets us also in Gorg. 525 b and elsewhere in Plato, prevailed more and more in the time of the sophists as the ideas of the state and of law lost power and sacredness. In former times the ideas of retribution and of the expiation of the violation of right and law, had been the foundation of criminal law; cf. Aesch. Cho. 313 δράσαντι παθεῖν, | τριγέρων μῦθος τάδε φωνεῖ the doer must suffer, thus says a most ancient adage.

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