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μηδὲ . . . ἀρετήν: added epexegetically, with anacoluthon after ἐφ᾽ ὧν.

ξυλλήβδην: is unexpected after ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν, but cf. Apol. 22 b ὡς ἔπος γὰρ εἰπεῖν ὀλίγου αὐτῶν ἅπαντες οἱ παρόντες ἂν βέλτιον ἔλεγον.—The destruction of one's house, the extinction of one's family, stood for the greatest possible disaster.

δ᾽ ἄρα: see on 313 a, 1. 2. Cf. Crito 46 d πρὶν μὲν ἐμὲ δεῖν ἀποθνῄσκειν καλῶς ἐλέγετο, νῦν δὲ κατάδηλος ἄρα ἐγένετο κτἑ.; 50 e πρὸς μὲν ἄρα σοι τὸν πατέρα οὐκ ἐξ ἴσου ἦν τὸ δίκαιον (while towards your father it was certainly not right for you), πρὸς δὲ τὴν πατρίδα ἄρα καὶ τοὺς νόμους ἐξέσται σοι κτἑ.

οἴεσθαί γε χρή: an expression freq. in Plato in reply to a question raised by the speaker himself or a bystander. What follows is added ‘asyndetically,’ because it confirms οἴ- εσθαι χρή by a surprising fact. On the following classical passage upon the training of the youth, see Becker Char. ii. 19 ff., Hermann Griech. Alt. iii. § 33 ff., Guhl and Koner, Life of the Greeks and Romans, §§ 50, 51.

ἐπειδὰν θᾶττον κτἑ.: during the first years, nurse and mother; later, pedagogue and father.

θᾶττον: is rare after ἐπεί and similar particles; more freq. is τάχιστα. In Plato, besides this place, θᾶττον is found thus only in Alc. I. 105 a ἐὰν θᾶττον.

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    • Plato, Protagoras, 313a
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