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CHAPTER XVIII

Socrates elicits from Protagoras (1) that while Virtue as a whole is one, the single virtues differ from each other and from the whole like the parts of the face, that it is possible to possess one virtue without possessing all, and that in all there are five virtues, justice, temperance, holiness, bravery, wisdom, of which the last is greatest (329D330A; (2) that the virtues differ from each other not only in themselves, but in their δύναμις (330A330B; (3) that justice is just, and holiness holy (330B330E. The refutation of Protagoras does not begin till the next chapter.

3. προσώπου: προσώπου is treated as an abstract conception —‘parts of face’: cf. ψυχή in 313Cκάπηλος τῶν ἀγωγίμων ἀφ᾽ ὧν ψυχὴ τρέφεται, Rep. IV. 435C εἰς φαῦλόν γε αὖσκῶμμα ἐμρερτώκαμεν ρεπὶ ψυχῆς, εἴτε ἔχει τὰ τπία εἴδη ταῦτα ἐν αὑτῆ̣ εἴτε μή. In Aristotelian language, the face is ἀνομοιομερές.

6. ἀλλήλων καὶ τοῦ ὅλου: so the MSS. and Heindorf (who suggests ἀλλήλων τε καὶ τοῦ ὅλου): recent editors mostly omit either ἀλλήλων or τὰ ἕτερα τῶν ἑτέρων. τὰ ἕτερα τῶν ἑτέρων should be taken quite generally, τῶν ἑτέρων (and thus, by implication, τὰ ἕτερα) having its meaning defined by the clause ἀλλήλων καὶ τοῦ ὅλου. τὰ ἕτερα τῶν ἑτέρων could be dropped without injury to the sense, but hardly ἀλλήλων: without ἀλλήλων Plato would have written οὐδὲν διαφέρει τὸ ἕτερον τοῦ ἑτέρου καὶ τοῦ ὅλου: cf. 330Aἆρ᾽ οὖν οὕτω καὶ τὰ τῆς ἀρετῆς μόρια οὐκ ἔστιν τὸ ἕτερον οἷον τὸ ἕτερον (not τὰ ἕτερα οἷα τὰ ἕτερα); and so 330E 331A 331D 349B 359A

10. μεταλαμβάνουσινμορίωνἄλλο. μεταλαμβάνειν, μετέχειν, μεταδιδόναι and the like take an accusative of the part as well as a genitive of the whole. μεταλαμβάνειν μόριον = ‘to receive a part of a whole’: μεταλαμβάνειν μορίου = ‘to receive a part of a part’.

13. ἀνδρεῖοί εἰσιν ἄδικοι δέ: cf. Laws, I. 630B πιστὸς μὲν γὰρ καὶ ὑγιὴς ἐν στάσεσιν οὐκ ἄν ροτε γένοιτο ἄνευ ξυμράσης ἀπετῆς. διαβάντες δ᾽ εὖ καὶ μαχόμενοι ἐθέλοντες ἀροθνῄσκειν ἐν τῷ ρολέμῳ ὡς φπάζει Τύπταιος τῶν μισθοφόπων εἰσὶ ράμρολλοι, ὧν οἱ ρλεῖστοι γίγνονται θπασεῖς καὶ ἄδικοι καὶ ὑβπισταὶ καὶ ἀφπονέστατοι σχεδὸν ἁπάντων.

14. καὶ ταῦτα: for σοφία and ἀνδρεία have not yet been named—only δικαιοσύνη and σωφροσύνη and ὁσιότης. See Introd. p. xxxi.

16. καὶ μέγιστόν γε σοφία: Protagoras speaks as a σοφιστής, glorifying his profession.

17. ἄλλο, τὸ δὲ ἄλλο: equivalent to τὸ μὲν ἄλλο, τὸ δὲ ἄλλο. τὸ δέ, τὰ δέ, etc., without preceding τὸ μέν, τὰ μέν, etc., is a frequent idiom. Crat. 399A πολλάκις ἐπεμβάλλομεν γράμματα, τὰ δ᾽ ἐξαιροῦμεν, Soph. O.T. 1229 οἶμαι γὰρ οὔτ᾽ ἂν Ἴστρον οὔτε Φᾶσιν ἂν νίψαι καθαπμῷ τήνδε τὴν στέγην ὅσα κεύθει, τὰ δ᾽ αὐτίκ᾽ εἰς τὸ φῶς φανεῖ κακά.

18. ὥσπερ τὰ τοῦ προσώπου: we have placed the mark of interrogation before ὥσπερ: see on ἄλλο γε in 311E The sentence ὥσπερ τὰ τοῦ προσώπου οὐκ ἔστιν ὀφθαλμὸς οἷον τὰ ὦτα thus corresponds exactly to ἆρ᾽ οὖν οὕτω καὶ τὰ τῆς ἀρετῆς μόρια οὐκ ἔστιν τὸ ἕτερον οἷον τὸ ἕτερον. For τὰ τοῦ προσώπου followed by its parts in the same case cf. below 349Aἐκεῖνατὰ μέντὰ δέ and Theaet. 151A οἷς ὅταν πάλιν ἔλθωσιἐνίοις μὲνἀποκωλύει συνεῖναι, ἐνίοις δὲ ἐᾷ. For the asyndeton regular in explanatory and ampliative clauses see note on Apol. 22A.

25. ἀλλ᾽ οὕτως, ἔφη, ἔχει, Σώκρατες. So T: B has only ἀλλ᾽ οὕτως, ἔφη. The longer form of answer is more suited to Protagoras' style.

31. δικαιοσύνη πρᾶγμά τί ἐστιν. Cf. below 332Aἀφροσύνην τι καλεῖς; 332C 358D Plato frequently begins a train of reasoning in this way.

32. καὶ ἐμοί: so T: B has καί μοι. καὶ ἐμοί seems slightly better than κἀμοί, as forming a more effective balance to ἐμοὶ μέν in the same line.

33. Πρωταγόρα τε καὶ Σώκρατες: but ἐμέ τε καὶ σέ as Greek usage requires. Protagoras is addressed first on the principle seniores priores and honoris causa; contrast 311D and cf. 353A(Kroschel).

34. εἴπετον: contrast 311Dεἰπέ μοι, Σώκρατές τε καὶ Ἱππόκρατες, where see note. The dual gives prominence to the notion in κοινῇ σκεψώμεθα (l. 29). The connection of this part of the argument with the rest is this: in 330A330Bit is said that no one part of virtue is οἷον τὸ ἕτερον, e.g. that δικαιοσύνη is not οἷον ὁσιότης (major premise); here it is said that δικαιοσύνη is δίκαιον, ὁσιότης ὅσιον (minor premise): from which the conclusion (in the next chapter) is drawn that δικαιοσύνη is not ὅσιον, nor ὁσιότης δίκαιον. This stage of the argument is therefore neither ‘tautological nor unmeaning’, as Grote (quoted by Turner) asserts.

45. οἷον ἀνόσιον εἷναι οἷον ὅσιον. Notice the identification of the ‘not ὅσιον’ with ἀνόσιον: see below on 331A

47. εὐφήμει, ἄνθρωπε. ἄνθρωπε is somewhat brusque: so ἄνθρωποι in 314Dabove. ἄνθρωπε without would border on rudeness: e.g. Gorg. 518C ἴσως ἂν οὖν ἠγανάκτεις, εἴ σοι ἔλεγον, ἄνθρωπε, οὐδὲν ἐπαΐεις περὶ γυμναστικῆς. εὐφήμει is frequent to express shocked surprise, real or feigned: e.g. Rep. I. 329C Meno, 91B (Ἡράκλεις, εὐφήμει, Σώκρατες), Gorg. 469A, Euthyd. 301A.

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hide References (26 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (26):
    • Plato, Laws, 630b
    • Plato, Republic, 435c
    • Plato, Apology, 22a
    • Plato, Cratylus, 399a
    • Plato, Theaetetus, 151a
    • Plato, Meno, 91b
    • Plato, Euthydemus, 301a
    • Plato, Gorgias, 518c
    • Plato, Protagoras, 311d
    • Plato, Protagoras, 311e
    • Plato, Protagoras, 313c
    • Plato, Protagoras, 314d
    • Plato, Protagoras, 329c
    • Plato, Protagoras, 329d
    • Plato, Protagoras, 330a
    • Plato, Protagoras, 330b
    • Plato, Protagoras, 330e
    • Plato, Protagoras, 331a
    • Plato, Protagoras, 331d
    • Plato, Protagoras, 332a
    • Plato, Protagoras, 332c
    • Plato, Protagoras, 349a
    • Plato, Protagoras, 349b
    • Plato, Protagoras, 353a
    • Plato, Protagoras, 358d
    • Plato, Protagoras, 359a
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