previous next

ταὐτὸν -- ἅμα is the earliest explicit statement in Greek literature of the maxim of Contradiction; cf. Theaet. 188 A, Phaed. 102 E, 103 B, Soph. 230 B and infra X 602 E. Plato may have been led to formulate it in opposition to Heracliteanism, which was supposed by some to be the negation of the principle (see Arist. Met. Γ 3. 1005^{b} 24 and Theaet. 152 D ff.), or against the Megarian puzzles (see RP.^{7} § 226), or as a counterblast to both. Many of the sophistries of the Euthydemus turn on the violation of this law. In Aristotle's formula (Met. l.c. 1005^{b} 19) πρὸς ταὐτόν does not occur; and Hartman would cancel καὶ πρὸς ταὐτόν here and πρὸς τὸ αὐτό in 436 E, on the ground that it means the same as κατὰ ταὐτόν. But assuredly it does not. κατὰ ταὐτόν is ‘in the same part of it’ as the instances presently cited shew; while πρὸς ταὐτόν is ‘relatively to the same thing,’ viz. to something other than the subject of the proposition. πρὸς τὰ αὐτά and κατὰ ταὐτά are also both of them found in the parallel passage Soph. 230 B. πρὸς ταὐτόν covers such cases as are adduced in Theaet. 154 C—155 C: six dice are πλείους πρὸς τέτταρας, ἐλάττους πρὸς δώδεκα, but they are not ἐναντία πρὸς ταὐτόν. Cf. VII 524 A ff., and see also on καὶ εἴη in 437 A.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide References (5 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (5):
    • Plato, Phaedo, 102e
    • Plato, Sophist, 230b
    • Plato, Theaetetus, 152d
    • Plato, Theaetetus, 154c
    • Plato, Theaetetus, 188a
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: