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ἀνδρεῖον δρᾶμα κτλ. There is probably a playful allusion to the mimes of Sophron, as was first pointed out by R. Förster in Rhein. Mus. XXX (1875) p. 316. According to Suidas (s.v. Σώφρων) and others, Sophron's mimes were classified as ἀνδρεῖοι μῖμοι and γυναικεῖοι μῖμοι. In the former, as may be inferred from Choricius' Defence of Mimes (first published by Graux in Revue de Philologie 1 pp. 209 ff.) Sophron represented male characters, in the latter female (μιμεῖται μὲν ἄνδρας, μιμεῖται δὲ γύναια ib. p. 215). This is corroborated by many of the titles of his plays, such as ἀγροιώτας, θυνναθήρας, ἄγγελος contrasted with ταὶ ἀκ<*>στρίαι, νυμφόπονος, πενθερά etc. Sophron's mimes are called δράματα (cf. ἀνδρεῖον δρᾶμα) by Demetrius περὶ ἑρμηνείας § 156 σχεδόν τε πάσας ἐκ τῶν δραμάτων αὐτοῦ τὰς παροιμίας ἐκλέξαι ἐστίν. The point here is that just as custom required an ἀνδρεῖος μῖμος to precede a γυναικεῖος—this is not otherwise attested, so far as I can discover—, so it will be proper (ὀρθῶς ἂν ἔχοι) for Plato's women to come on the stage after his men have played their part. Plato's partiality for Sophron is frequently mentioned by ancient authors, as for example by D. L. III 18, Quintil. I 10. 17: see Schuster in Rhein. Mus. XXIX (1874) pp. 605 ff., where these and other authorities are cited. Susemihl (Bursian's Jahresbericht 1874—1875 III p. 343) doubted whether Plato has Sophron in view here; but the allusion, which was admitted by Graux (l.c. p. 215 note), and successfully reaffirmed by Förster (Rhein. Mus. for 1880 p. 472), is highly probable. I can see no point in making δρᾶμα γυναικεῖον an ironical reference to the Ecclesiazusae of Aristophanes (with Munk die nat. Ordnung d. Pl. Schr. p. 296, and Chiappelli l.c. p. 196), nor is it likely that the words allude to a dramatic caricature of Plato's policy by some other comedian, as is supposed by Bergk Gr. Literaturgesch. IV p. 462 note 134. On Sophron's prose-mimes as a preparation for the Socratic Dialogue see Hirzel der Dialog I pp. 20—26.

451C - 452E We declared at the outset that our men were to be as it were guardians of the flock. Now the principle of community requires that our female watch-dogs shall share the active duties of the males, allowance being made for their inferiority in strength. Their education must therefore be the same: they will have to learn music, gymnastic, and the art of war. No doubt the spectacle of women, especially old women, exercising themselves naked along with men, will seem ludicrous at first; but it is not long since the Greeks would have thought it ludicrous even for men to strip for athletic exercises. Nothing is truly ludicrous except what is mischievous.

ff. Socrates now prepares to encounter the first ‘wave’ (451 C—457 B): see on 449 A ff. The outstanding feature in his argument throughout this part of the dialogue is the constant appeal which he makes to φύσις (452 E, 453 B, C, E, 454 B, C, D, 455 A, D, E, 456 A, B, C, D). He maintains that community of work and education between certain selected men and women is ‘natural’ in two senses. In the first place, it is, he maintains, in harmony with human nature, that is, with the nature of man and woman (455 E ff.), and in the second place, it is recommended by the analogy of Nature's other children, the lower animals (451 D). See also on II 370 A. Pöhlmann (Gesch. d. antik. Kommunismus etc. pp. 114—146) has shewn that the desire for a ‘return to Nature’ found frequent and manifold expression in the literature of Plato's times, and we can see that Plato was himself powerfully affected by the same impulse, although his interpretation of ‘Nature’ is coloured by an Idealism which is peculiarly his own (IV 443 B note). The special regulations of Book V may be illustrated in some particulars from the practices of certain ‘Natur-völker’ before the time of Plato (see e.g. Hdt. IV 116 and infra 463 C note), as well as by certain features of the Pythagorean and Spartan disciplines (see RP.^{7} 48 A f. and notes on 452 B al.), but it is more important and relevant to observe that Plato's assignment of common duties and common training to the two sexes is part of a well-reasoned and deliberate attempt by the Socratic school to improve the position of women in Greece. In this respect, as in many others, the teaching of Socrates inaugurated an era of protest against the old Hellenic view of things. See in particular, for the views of Socrates himself, Xen. Mem. II 2. 5, Symp. 2. 9 γυναικεία φύσις οὐδὲν χείρων τῆς τοῦ ἀνδρὸς οὖσα τυγχάνει, γνώμης δὲ καὶ ἰσχύος δεῖται, Oecon. 3. 12— 15, 7. 11 ff.; for Plato, Symp. 201 D ff. and Laws 780 E ff.; and for the opinion of Antisthenes consult D. L. VI 12 ἀνδρὸς καὶ γυναικὸς αὐτὴ ἀρετή. It is possible that some of Euripides' pictures of noble and disinterested women were also inspired in some measure by the influence of the same movement. In later times the Stoics constituted themselves the champions of similar views, and Cleanthes wrote a treatise entitled περὶ τοῦ ὅτι αὐτὴ ἀρετὴ καὶ ἀνδρὸς καὶ γυναικός: see Dyroff Ethik d. alten Stoa pp. 311 —314, where other evidence is cited. A learned and acute discussion on the attitude of the Socratic school in this matter will be found in Chiappelli Riv. di Filologia etc. XI pp. 229 ff. Finally it should be observed that, from Plato's point of view, the selection of suitable women as φύλακες is strictly in harmony with the fundamental principle of our city, viz. ‘to each one work according to his or her nature’ (II 370 B note); that it removes a dangerous source of unrest, intrigue, and sedition, by providing an outlet for the energies of able and politically-minded women in legitimate channels and silencing them with the responsibilities of rule, while it at the same time secures for the service of the State all that is best in the other half of the population (Laws 781 A), and justifies the claim of the perfect city to be in literal truth an Aristocracy.

κατ᾽ ἐκείνην κτλ.: “in following out that original impulse which we communicated to them” (D. and V.).

ὡρμήσαμεν (sc. αὐτούς) is causative, and not intransitive, as Jowett supposes.

ἀγέλης. Cf. II 375 D and infra 460 C, 466 D notes

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    • Plato, Symposium, 201d
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