1. οἱ γάρ
—now begins the so-called πεντηκονταετία
, or sketch of the growth of Athenian power in the half century between the battle of Mycale (479 B. C.) and the beginning of the war (431 B.C.). This sketch continues to c. 118. 2
; and it consists of two parts: (1) to c. 96
—how they obtained the leadership (ἡγεμονία
）—or, as he says here, ἦλθον ἐπὶ τὰ πράγματα ἐν οἷς ηὐξήθησαν
; (2) to c. 118
—how the leadership was transformed into an empire—ἐν οἵῳ τρόπῳ κατέστη（ἡ ἀρχή
), c. 97. 2
—Salamis (480). πεζῷ
— by Leotychides, the Spartan king, and Xanthippus, father of Pericles.
11. οἱ ... ξύμμαχοι
—probably there was no formal treaty, but ξύμμαχοι
is used because they were fighting side by side with the Athenians. (There is no need to remove ξύμμαχοι
—the winter of 479-478 B C. The history of Herodotus ends with the fall of Sestos.
—in autumn of 479.
= ἐκεῖθεν οἷ
. Cf. Soph. Trach. 701 ἐκ δὲ γῆς ὅθεν
| προύκειτ᾽, ἀναζέουσι
, from the earth where it was strewn,
. The omission of antecedent before ὅθεν
is not very rare; e.g 2.94 τροπαῖον ἔστησαν ὅθεν ἀναγαγόμενοι ἐκράτησαν
, for ἐνταῦθα ὅθεν
. The places are Salamis, Troezen and Aegina.
of all kinds.
—in the autumn of 479.
—only a small remnant,
of the wall round the city left by the Persians.