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Previous duration of the war. Remarks on the best way of reckoning periods of time. αὗται αἱ σπονδαὶ ἐγένοντο: is a brief re-statement of the contents of the latter part of c. 17 (τότε δή παρακαλέσαντες, . . . τάδε). ἐκ Διονυσίων εὐθὺς τῶν ἀστικῶν: the city or greater Dionysia began before the vernal equinox, and lasted several days, until about the end of March. ἐκ of immediate sequence, as in i. 120. 17, ἐκ μὲν εἰρήνης πολεμεῖν; ii. 49. 9, ἔπειτα ἐξ αὐτῶν πταρμὸς καὶ βράγχος ἐπεγίγνετο.—αὐτόδεκα ἔτη: exactly ten years, corresponding to Lat. decem ipsi dies. (Kr. compares αὐτοτραγικὸς πίθηκος, Dem. XVIII. 242.) παρενεγκουσῶν: παραφέρειν here and in c. 26. 8 intr. like διαφέρειν, προφέρειν (i. 93. 13), ὑπερφέρειν (i. 81. 2) be in excess, vary. With this ἢ ὡς stands in close connexion: after exactly ten years had passed, and a few days were in excess since (i.e. had passed along further than when), etc. In accordance with the date of the beginning of the war as given in ii. 2, the words ἡ ἐσβολὴ . . . τοῦ πολέμου τοῦδε must be closely connected, so that ἡ ἀρχὴ τοῦ πολέμου τοῦδε refers to the attack upon Plataea, i.e. to the beginning of April, 431 B.C. ἡ ἐσβολὴ ἡ ἐς τὴν Ἀττικήν is mentioned first, as the more important event, but in the computation of the time it is made subordinate to the attack upon Plataca. The ὀλίγαι ἡμέραι παρενεγκοῦσαι are, then, in the early part of April. The day upon which the peace began is mentioned in c. 19. 1, and falls about the middle of April. Here the same day is referred to as a few days after the first of April. But ten days, or even two weeks, may well be called a few days when a ten years' war is under consideration. See App. καὶ μὴ τὴν ἀπαρίθμησιν: this passage (to πιστεύσας μᾶλλον) is corrupt in all Mss. But the sense is evidently: one must (in order to understand events properly) date them according to the (natural) divisions of time, and not acc. to (κατά is understood with ἀπαρίθμησιν; see on i. 6. 21; ii. 63. 4; iii. 21. 10) the count of the names of the persons who serve in each place, either as highest magistrate or from any (other, e.g. priestly) office (as in Argos; cf. ii. 2. 4), to designate the year, because one considers that safer, for that is inexact (i.e. to embrace a whole year in this way), since something happened at the beginning as well as in the middle or at any other time of their tenure of office. οἱς is used in the sense of ἐπεὶ τούτοις to explain ἀρχόντων ἢ ἀπὸ τιμῆς τινος. See App. καὶ ὅπως ἔτυχέ τῳ: sc. ἐπιγενόμενον. “In whatever other part of their time of office an event may have happened,” whether at the end, or in the first or in the second half, etc. ἐπεγένετο: as in i. 16. 1 and vii. 87. 14. ὥσπερ γέγραπται: “as has been done hitherto in my narrative.” Cf. ii. 1. 4.—ἐξ ἡμισείας κτἑ.: acc. to the explanation given in the Introd. to Book I. p. 40, equiv. to ἑκατέρου（τοῦ τε θέρους καὶ τοῦ χειμῶνος）τὴν δύναμιν ἔχοντος ἐξ ἡμισείας τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, “inasmuch as each of the two divisions of the year is to be reckoned (on an average) as half a year,” i.e. so that the two divisions, though not necessarily equal to one another, when taken together always make a year. τῷ πρώτῳ πολέμῳ: also in c. 24. 12 and c. 26. 15. This and ὁ πρότερος πόλεμος (vii. 18. 12) and ὁ δεκαετὴς πόλεμος (c. 25. 3 and 26. 15) are the words used by Thuc. to denote the first period of the Peloponnesian war, for which the designation Ἀρχιδάμειος πόλεμος came into use among the orators. See Ullrich, Beitr., 1845, p. 13 ff.
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