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Phacax is sent from Athens to Sicily, and tries without much success to form a coalition of the other Sicilian Greeks against the Syracusans.

Φαίαξ: at that time one of the most noted Athenians. Cf. Plut. Ale. 13, where he is mentioned as a rival of Alcibiades.—τρίτος αὐτός: with two others. Cf. i. 46. 7; viii. 35. 3, Δωριεὺς Διαγόρου τρίτος αὐτός.

Λεοντῖνοι γὰρ κτἑ.: continuing to 16, a short account of Sicilian affairs, since the time when they were last mentioned in iv. 65.

ἀπελθόντων Ἀθηναίων: in the summer of 424 B.C., after Hermocrates had brought about the peace among the Sicilian Greeks. See iv. 65.

πολίτας τε ἐπεγράψαντο: they enrolled new citizens in order to strengthen the democratic party, and for their benefit a new division of land was to be made.— τὴν γῆν ἀναδάσασθαι: cf. ἀναδασμὸς γῆς, Hdt.iv. 159. 8, and the Attic oath of the heliasts, Dem. xxiv. 149.

αἰσθόμενοι: with no expressed obj., refers to what precedes. Cf. i. 95. 22, οἱ δὲ αἰσθόμενοι ἀπῆλθον; 118. 9; 126. 21; 131. 1; 134. 1; ii. 25. 8; iii. 22. 22; iv. 67. 8, and often.

ἐπλανήθησαν ὡς ἕκαστοι: they (i.e. the δῆμος) were scattered in every direction. The aor. referring to continued action in the past because this is regarded as a single historical event. GMT. 19, N. 2; H. 822 c. Cf. i. 6. 7; 8. 3; ii. 2. 2; iv. 56. 2. The ellipsis after ὡς ἕκαστοι is to be supplied from ἐπλανήθησαν. — 9. Συρακοσίοις, Συρακούσας: see App.—ἐκλιπόντες καὶ ἐρημώσαντες: the fact that the city was left without inhabitants is emphasized.

ἐπὶ πολιτείᾳ ᾤκησαν: they settled (aor.) there upon the assurance of citizenship. Cf. i. 13. 5, ἐπὶ ῥητοῖς γέρασι πατρικαὶ βασιλεῖαι; iii. 114. 14, ξυμμαχίαν ἐποιήσαντο ἐπὶ τοῖσδε. The dat. with ἐπί expresses the condition upon which anything is done.

ἀρέσκεσθαι: being contented, with and without dat. Cf. c. 37. 19; ii. 68. 7.—ἀπολιπόντες ἐκ: as in iii. 10. 8, ἀπολιπόντων ὑμῶν ἐκ τοῦ Μηδικοῦ πολέμου. Kühn. 447 c.

τῆς πόλεως τι χωρίον: apparently a suburb of Leontini, the name of which points to a connexion with the Ionic Phocaea (see Holm, Gesch. Siciliens, I. p. 198), while the fortress of Bricinniae was prob. at a greater distance from the city, though in the Leontine territory (ἐν τῇ Λεοντίνῃ. Holm, II. p. 9).

ὄν: agrees with the pred. ἔρυμα. Cf. i. 10. 1. G. 135, 3, N. 4; H. 610; Kühn. 369, 3.

ὡς αὐτούς: i.e. to join them.— καταστάντες: i.e. after they had established themselves and made preparations for defence. Cf. i. 59. 7; ii. 1. 3; iv. 75. 8.

ἐκ τῶν τειχῶν: from the (two) fortified places.ἐπολεμουν: they carried on war against the Syracusans. The impf. denotes the condition of hostility, not definite events. — πυνθανόμενοι κτἑ.: returns to the beginning of the chap.

εἴ πως...διασώσειαν κτἑ.: in case they should persuade, etc., and so save the δῆμος. An idea of purpose is implied as an apod. The whole is equiv. to a clause expressing intention. GMT. 53, N. 2; H. 907.—τοὺς...ξυμμάχους : referring to the conditions which existed before 424 B.C. (iv. 65). See iii. 86.

κοινῇ: with ἐπιστρατεῦσαι, the motive for a joint campaign being the continual (pres. partic. περιποιουμένων) aggressions of the Syracusans.

ἀντιστάντος αὐτῷ τοῦ πράγματος: since his undertaking did not prosper. As in c. 38. 20, ὡς δὲ ἀντέστη τὸ πρᾶγμα, in accordance with the well-known meaning of πράσσειν, undertake, or carry on an undertaking. Cf. i. 128. 13, τὰ πρὸς βασιλέα πράγματα πράσσειν; iv. 1. 4, ἔπραξαν δὲ τοῦτο οἱ Συρακόσιοι.

αἰσθόμενος : see App.

διὰ τῶν Σικελῶν: the Sicels in the country behind Syracuse. —ἐν τῇ παρόδῳ: on the march from Gela to Catana. This also goes to prove that Bricinniae lay some distance inland from Leontini.

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