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The long walls at Athens begun; the Lacedaemonians, who had gone to support the Dorians, hindered on their return by the Athenians.

ἤρξαντο: the completion is mentioned in c. 108. 12. In this connexion of city and harbour, which identified the power of Athens with the sea, the democracy recognized the surest guarantee of its stability.

τὸ Φαληρόνδε: of 35 stades; τὸ ἐς Πειραιᾶ: of 40 stades. See ii. 13. § 7. The latter afterwards consisted of a double wall (τὸ βόρειον καὶ τὸ νότιον). But at first only the northern line was constructed; the southern one (τὸ διὰ μέσου τεῖχος) was added about B.C. 440, by the advice of Pericles. Plat. Gorg. 455 e, and Curtius, Zu den Sieben Karten, p. 33.

Δωριᾶς: applied both to district and inhabitants; and so the appos. τὴν μητρόπολιν, as in iii.92.9. Cf. Hdt. viii.31.7 (who, c. 43. 8, mentions a fourth town, Pindus); Strab. x.4.6.

Νικομήδους: see on c. 94. 1.

βασιλέως: appos. to Πλειστοάνακτος.

ἀπεχώρουν : they began their return march. See on c. 87. 1.

διὰ τοῦ Κρισαίου κόλπου: they may have intended to take ship at Cirrha, as Cl. suggests; but Thuc. always uses this name for the Corinthian gulf. See ii.69.4; 83. 2; 92. 22; 93. 1; iv.76.10. For the order of words, see on c. 77. 4.

ἔμελλον κωλύσειν: it was to be expected that they would hinder. Thuc. uses the fut. inf. after μέλλειν (regarded as a verb of thinking) in preference to the pres. (as after a verb of will). Cf. c. 10. 31; 22. 2; 114. 4; 130. 10; 132. 30; 134. 3; etc. Pres. and fut. together, vi.42.3. The Mss. vary as usual.

Μέγαρα καὶ Πηγάς: see c. 103. 13.—πορεύεσθαι: in c. 26. 5 with πεζῇ, of a march by land. βαδίζειν is usually opp. to πλεῖν.

δύσοδος : occurs here only. Curtius, Pelop. II. 552.

καὶ τότε: in addition to the natural difficulties of that route, active opposition on the part of the Athenians was threatened.—καὶ ταύτῃ: i.e. as well as κατὰ θίλασσαν, 11.

ὅτῳ τρόπῳ: with fut. indic., for the more usual ὅπως. So iv.128.23; vi.11.25; 44. 23; viii.43.12; 48. 23; 63. 20.

τὸ δέ τι καί: (in 25 καί τι καί) adds a collateral reason; and besides. Cf. c. 118. 12; vii.48.7.—ἄνδρες τῶν Ἀθηναίων: i.e. of the aristocratical party. For the use of ἄνδρες for τινες, see on vi.10.5.— 20. ἐπῆγον: were seeking to introduce. So the act. in ii.85.21; viii.46.9; though usually the mid.—δῆμον: the democratic constitution; oftener with καταλύειν, κατάλυσις: see iii.81.20; v.76.6; 81. 8; vi.27.11; 28. 10; viii.49.5; 54. 17; 64. 9; 65. 2; 68. 2, 27; 86. 8, 47. καταπαύειν also of political changes, v.26.3; viii.97.5. The long walls would greatly strengthen the democracy.

ἐβοήθησαν: (a) βοηθεῖν ἐπί τινας=‘to carry force against’ them; (b) ἐπὶἐςτόπον, ‘to carry aid to’ it. Arn. Cf. (a) iii.110.8; iv.25.32; 108. 28; (b) iii.97.14; iv.8.3; 42. 15; 72. 2; vi.65.20; vii.18.4; viii.60.15.—πανδημεί: includes either the whole population, as c. 73. 22; 90. 22; v.82.26; or the whole military force, as here, ii.31.2; v.64.6. In this case it appears that even the force in possession of Geraneia was withdrawn.

ὡς ἕκαστοι: cf. c. 67. 13.

ὅπῃ διέλθωσιν: deliberative subjv., as ii.4.29; 52. 11; iii.112.22.

τοῦ δήμου: Kr. conjectures που δήμου, because δῆμος is often used in this sense without the art., and here καταλύσεως is without it. But δῆμος, the democratical constitution (besides the places cited by Kr. and P.), has the art. in v.76.5; viii.54.17; 68. 3, 14; and Thuc. often omits the art. with a governing subst. when a gen. precedes. Cf. c. 3. 1; 11. 2; 36. 11.—ὑποψίᾳ: after νομίσαντες; see on c. 80. 3, where the order is reversed.

τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις: see on c. 13. 12.—κατὰ τὸ ξυμμαχικόν: see c. 102. 21; ii.22.17. The word is rare, except in Thuc. Cf. ii.101.15; iii.3.19; 91. 7; iv.61.15; v.6.6; etc.οἳ μετέστησαν: rel. clause with adversative force; but these passed over. See on c. 35. 15.

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