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The Athenians are defeated by the Lacedaemonians at Tanagra; as two months later the Boeotians are by the Athenians at Oenophyta.

Τανάγρᾳ: on the Asopus, near the Attic border.—ἐνίκων: this positive assertion must outweigh the opposing statements of later writers (Plat. Menex. 242 b; Diod. xi.81.6; Justin. iii. 6), who represent the result differently. A favourable consequence of this defeat was the recall of Cimon (see on c. 102. 22) on the motion of Pericles. Plut. Cim. 17. 10; Per. 10. 3.

δενδροτομήσαντες: not to be changed with v. H. into -κοπήσαντες, though hardly occurring elsewhere. Metaphorical in Ar. Pax, 747. The reference is specially to the destruction of vines and olives.

δευτέρᾳ...ἡμέρᾳ : by this precise date and the condensed brevity of the account, Thuc. indicates the surprising character of these successes.

Οἰνοφύτοις: Schol., χωρίον τῆς Βοιωτίας, of uncertain position. Kiepert marks it on the Asopus, a few miles east of Tanagra.

ἐκράτησαν: not so much by further victories as by the support given to the democratical faction in the various towns, whose preponderance lasted till the battle of Coronea, B.C. 446, c. 113. —τῆς χώρας τῆς Βοιωτίας: i.e. the country except Thebes, but Grote, Hist. of Gr., V. c. 45, p. 187, includes Thebes; on p. 202 he quotes Arist. Pol. v.3.5 (1302 b, 29) as implying that a democracy was established there also at this time.

περιεῖλον: for the usual καθεῖλον; again in 14 and iv.51.1; 133. 2.

ὁμήρους: Curtius, Herm. 10, p. 239, considers that this was a punishment for the participation of these Locrians in the undertaking directed against Athenian interests, referred to on c. 103. § 3.—τοὺς πλουσιωτάτους: for the position, cf. in 12 τὰ μακρά, added as a supplementary explanation.— 12. τά τε τείχη: the last member of the enumeration. Cf. c. 67. 6; 69. 3; 76. 12; 90. 7; and so in 14, φόρον τε.

ὡμολόγησαν: see on c. 101. 12. This was after a siege of nearly three years; see c. 105. 9. P. follows Diod. XI. 78. 5, who makes it last nine months only.

Τολμίδου: son of Tolmaeus. On names from similar stems, see on c. 29. 7.

τὸ νεώριον: Gythium, see Paus. i.27.5; at the northwest corner of the Laconian gulf, now Marathonisi, Curtius, Pel. II. 270.

Χαλκίδα: no doubt the place mentioned in ii.83.18 near the mouth of the Evenus in Aetolia, which was then in the hands of the Corinthians. The Schol. wrongly places it in Acarnania.—ἀποβάσει τῆς γῆς: cf. παράπλους τῆς Ἰταλίας, c. 36. 11; γῆς πατρῴας νόστος, Eur. I. T. 1066; in adpulsu litoris, Tac. Hist. ii. 59. Kühn. 414, 4.

μάχῃ ἐκράτησαν: Thuc. joins κρατεῖν with the acc. when it is used with μάχῃ or μαχόμενος (ii.39.14; iv.67.29), or, more rarely, when the connexion clearly implies this (ii.39.18; iii.99.3); otherwise always with the gen.; for in viii.25.23, ἐν τῇ μάχῃ belongs to ξυνέβη; and in viii.62.7 the gen. is to be regarded rather as abs.

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