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The tyrants also in the Greek states employed their power in no important wars.

τύραννοι δὲ κτἑ.: we have here the last of the τεκμήρια for the time before the Persian war. See note at end of c. 2. The position of τύραννοι (without art. before the attrib. rel. sentence, nearly = ὅσοι ἐτυράννευον) reminds us of the previous mention of τυραννίδες in c. 13. 3.

προορώμενοι: the Attic prose writers often use the mid. of compounds of ὁρᾶν, chiefly of intellectual perception. Kühn. 374, 3.—ἔς τε...αὔξειν : the two aspects of τὸ ἐφ᾽ ἑαυτῶν (their own interest), their personal security (cf. vi.9.8) and the aggrandizement of their families.— 3. δἰ ἀσφαλείας...ᾤκουν : administered their states (cf. iii.37.18; viii.67.6) in the way of the greatest attainable security. For διά, cf. c. 40. 16; 73. 13; ii.64.2.

ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν: as the result of their rule. The execution might be by others. So ἀπό is frequently used with πράσσεσθαι, cf. iv.76.4; vi.61.6; viii.48.46; 68. 24; with λέγεσθαι, iii.36.24; 82. 41; vi.32.18, in all of which Cobet (V. L. p. 276) would read ὑπό. But see Herbst gegen Cobet, p. 49, who says, ὑπό dicitur de ipso actore, ἀπό de auctore. Sh. asks: “Why should copyists constantly change ὑπό into ἀπό after such verbs, and very rarely after others?”

εἰ μή τι: with the Vat. and other good Mss. for εἰ μὴ εἴ τι, which is not found elsewhere in Thuc.—πρὸς περιοίκους...ἑκάστοις : on the order, see on c. 1. 6. ἑκάστοις is not to be connected with ἐπράχθη, but with περιοίκους τοὺς αὑτῶν (though the gen. would be more regular), emphasizing the separate instances.

οἱ γὰρ κτἑ.: see App.

οὕτω πανταχόθεν κτἑ.: refers generally to the causes which hindered the rapid growth of Greek power, enumerated in c. 2 ff., before the Persian war, to which we pass in c. 18. κατείχετο, was held back, checked. Cf. ii.65.33; iii.62.13. With ὥστε μή, iv.130.27; Hdt. viii.57.9. With simple inf. probably here only. On the neg., see GMT. 95, 2; H. 1029. The second clause, κατὰ πόλεις . . . εἶναι, contains the neg. in ἀτολμοτέρα, = μήτε κατὰ πόλεις τολμηρότερόν τι πράσσειν. φανερόν here = ἐπιφανές, ἀξιόλογον. Cf. Xen. Cyr. vii.5.58.

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