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The Corinthians are defeated in a sea-fight off Actium, and Epidamnus surrenders to the Corcyraeans.

πλήρεις ἦσαν and 17, ἐπεπλήρωντο: the regular terms for the manning of ships. Cf. c. 35. 5; 47. 2; 141. 14; vi.32.1; vii.37.17.

προπέμψαντες: sending forward, προεροῦνταπροαγορεύειν), to announce publicly. Cf. c. 140. 22; ii.13.9; iv.97.18. In neither word is πρό temporal, and therefore πρότερον is not pleonastic, as πρῶτον is in c. 23. 21.

ἑβδομήκοντα καὶ πέντε: therefore in addition to the 68 mentioned in c. 27. § 2, there must have been others, probably those of the Eleans. There is no reason for preferring the number 70, given by Diod. xii. 31. In c. 27. 16, we have τρισχίλιοι ὁπλῖται; but 1000 may have been elsewhere employed; and 2000 corresponds well with the 75 ships, since in early times there were 30 ἐπιβάται (later 20) in a trireme. Boeckh, Publ. Econ. p. 383.— 5. ἐπὶ τὴν Ἐπίδαμνον: in the direction of, to succour, Epidamnus.

ἐναντία: acc. of inner obj. as adv. Kühn. 410, note 5. So ὁμοιότροπα, c. 6. 24; ὁμοῖα, c. 25. 18; ἀγχώμαλα, vii.71.21.— ἐστρατήγει: sing. preceding several subjs. G. 135, N. 1; H. 607.

Τιμάνωρ κτἑ.: other instances of names of father and son formed from the same roots are Ναυσίφιλος Ναυσινίκου, Σωσιγένης Σωσιάδου, Ἐπιγένης Μεταγένους, etc.

Ἀκτίῳ: at that time only a sanctuary of Apollo, where games were celebrated every second year. Augustus founded to the north of it the town of Nicopolis, to commemorate his victory over Antonius, B.C. 31.

ἐπλήρουν: in parataxis with προέπεμψαν. Cf. c. 26. 17; impf. to indicate that they began then to man the ships.

ζεύξαντες: applied to the strengthening of ships by new cross-planks; ζυγώματα αὐταῖς ἐνθέντες, Schol. Cartault, La trière Athénienne, p. 42.

ἐπισκευάσαντες: of other kinds of repair which ships might need on putting to sea. The completion of all these preparations is expressed by the plpf., 17, which is unusual in a prot.

τεσσαράκοντα γάρ: referring to c. 25. 24, τριήρεις εἴκοσι καὶ ἑκατὸν ὑπῆρχον αὐτοῖς.— 18. ἀνταναγαγόμενοι : see App.

ἐνίκησαν: the aor. of the fact simply: usually the resulting consequences are included by the use of the impf. See on c. 13. 31.—παρὰ πολύ: decisively. Cf. ii.8.13; 89. 16; iii.36.27; viii.6.16. Kühn. 440, p. 445.

αὐτοῖς: i.e. to the Corcyraeans in general.

παραστήσασθαι: in Thuc. only in aor. (cf. c. 98. 8; 124. 18; iii.35.2; iv.79.12), to reduce, serving as causative to προσχωρεῖν τινι, ‘to submit.’ Cf. c. 74. 24; 103. 10; 117. 13, etc. τὴν Ἐπίδαμνον must be repeated as obj.—ὥστε: on condition that; see on c. 28. 18.—τοὺς ἐπήλυδας: i.e. the οἰκήτορας of c. 26. 8.— 23. Κορινθίους: probably the larger part of the φρουροί, c. 26. 4.—δήσαντας ἔχειν: = ἐν δεσμοῖς ἔχειν. Cf. c. 30. 4; 52. 9; ii.5.23; 6. 8; iii.32.11; 34. 16; iv.21.5; v.42.10, etc. See on c. 38. 15.

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