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Speech of the Corcyraean ambassadors at Athens. Chaps. 32-36.

§ 1, 2. Whoever asks for aid without being able to appeal to obligation, should show that the granting of his request will be attended with advantage and not injury to those who help him.

μήτε εὐεργεσίας...προυφειλομένης : without having any claim on the score of important service rendered or of alliance. Cf. Hdt. v. 82, ἔχθρη προοφειλομένη. The pres. partic. expresses the standing obligation, μήτε, the hypothetical generality of the thought.

τοὺς πέλας: has no local meaning, but simply = others, his neighbours. Cf. 16; c. 37. 13, 20; 69. 13; 70. 2, etc.

ἀναδιδάξαι: show on the contrary or rather; for the absence of previous claim would be likely to give rise to an unfavourable judgment. Cf. iii.97.2; viii.86.4.—πρῶτον: has its correlative in ἔπειτα δέ. Cf. v.31.3; 61. 15; vi.2.18; vii.23.5. Its position gives it prominence enough without μέν, which before μάλιστα μέν, if possible, would have been objectionable.—καὶ ξύμφορα: implies ‘not only help for himself.’ δεῖσθαι properly takes gen. of person or of thing, but not often together as in 23. Kühn. 417, 2. But a neut. acc. of inner obj. is freq. found. Cf. Xen. An. vii.2.34, ταῦτ᾽ ἐστὶν ἐγὼ ὑμῶν δέομαι. Here it = ξύμφορον δέησιν δέονται.

ὅτι γε : with conjs. and preps. γε is often placed before what it really emphasizes; here οὐκ ἐπιζήμια.

Κερκυραῖοι δέ: and now the Corcyraeans. δέ brings their case under the general rule. Cf. c. 121. 1; ii.64.28; iii.10.7.

μετὰ...τῆς αἰτήσεως : the obj. gen. is often placed first. Cf. c. 65. 13; 84. 13; iii.23.27; v.53.11; vii.42.30.—ταῦτα: i.e. the advantage their alliance would bring to the Athenians, and the certainty of their gratitude.

παρέξεσθαι: mid., as in ii.62.32, implying that the powers of the subject are exerted. ‘Dynamic mid.’ Kr. Spr. 52, 8, 2.

§ 3-5. We must indeed admit that our former rule, of keeping aloof from all entangling alliances, does not justify itself in view of the danger which now threatens us from the Corinthians; and we now renounce it.

τετύχηκε δὲ κτἑ.: before they proceed to give the promised justification of their petition (which comes in c. 33), the δέ, and in truth, introduces a recognition of the perilous mistake of their previous behaviour. The pred. adjs. ἄλογον, ἀξύμφορον after τετύχηκε without a partic. Cf. c. 106. 4; ii.87.23; Soph. Aj. 9; El. 46, 313; Ar. Av. 760; Kühn. 483 c. Herbst, Philol. 24, p. 652. τετύχηκε, it has turned out, indicates the unusual coincidence of two bad results of the same cause (τὸ αὐτό).

ἐπιτήδευμα: a course of conduct based on principles; of individuals, vi.15.18; 28. 13; of states and peoples, c. 71. 9; 138. 4; ii.37.11; vi.18.19. The consistent carrying out of the same is ἐπιτήδευσις, ii.36.15; vii.86.26.— πρὸς ὑμᾶς: in your eyes; ἐς τὴν χρείαν: in respect of the request we make; ἐς τὰ ἡμέτερα αὐτῶν ἐν τῷ παρόντι: as regards our position at the present time.ἡμῖν: belongs to τετύχηκε ἄλογον καὶ ἀξύμφορον. The ἄλογον, “involving a contradiction,” is explained by 12, ξύμμαχοί τε . . . ἥκομεν, the ἀξύμφορον by 13, καὶ ἅμα . . . καθέσταμεν.

ἐν τῷ πρὸ τοῦ: with χρόνῳ, ii.58.12; 73. 10; without χρόνῳ, iv.72.13, including all past time up to the present. Note the behaviour of the Corcyraeans recorded in Hdt. vii. 168.

Κορινθίων: to be joined with πόλεμον. Cf. Xen. An. ii.5.7, τὸν θεῶν πόλεμον.

καθέσταμεν : here we stand; an emphatic ἐσμέν, with pred. adj. Cf. c. 70. 3; ii.59.9; iii.40.10; 102. 26; iv.26.25; vi.15.17; vii.28.31.

περιέστηκεν κτἑ.: the verb expresses the change and its result. Cf. c. 78. 5; 120. 27; iv.12.12; vi.24.6; 61. 18; vii.18.26; viii.1.9. The partic. φαινομένη of actual manifestation, opposed to δοκοῦσα of fallacious appearance. And so (καί, introducing the final consequence) what was formerly regarded as our wise discretion, in that we took no share in the risks of the policy of others by joining in a foreign alliance, has now at last (περι-) shown itself to be sheer want of foresight and weakness. The inf. clause τὸ μὴ . . . ξυγκινδυνεύειν is in appos. to . . . σωφροσύνη. Cf. c. 41. 8; vii.36.26. ἀβουλία and ἀσθένεια, the result of the ἄλογον and ἀξύμφορον.

τὴν μὲν οὖν...ναυμαχίαν : though grammatically construed with ἀπεωσάμεθα after the analogy of νικᾶν τινα μάχην, has at the head of the sentence an almost abs. position; as regards the victory, however. This effect must be often noted where the construction offers no difficulty. Cf. 33. 16; 73. 10; 86. 7; 142. 6; ii.62.1; iii.15.4.

κατὰ μόνας: singlehanded. Cf. c. 37. 17. An elliptical phrase with no certain supplement. See on c. 14. 15.

ὥρμηνται: have made themselves ready for war. Cf. ii.9.1; vi.33.6.

καὶ ἅμα: adds a new reason; not here temporal. See on c. 2. 9.—22, 24. κίνδυνος, ἀνάγκη, ξυγγνώμη: usually without ἐστί. Kühn. 354 b. Cf. iv.61.17; v.88.1. Here for κίνδυνος we must supply ἔσται or ἂν εἴη.

ὑμῶν...παντός : dependent on δεῖσθαι, to which here is joined also the gen. of the thing. Cf. Hdt. v.40.7; Xen. Cyr. viii.3.19.

μή: belongs only to μετὰ κακίας, not to the verb. Cf. c. 37. 6; iii.14.7.

τολμῶμεν: we venture, decide. The thing to be encountered is not a danger but an unfavourable judgment.

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