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Wherefore in early times the habit of bearing arms was general in Greece, which the Athenians first abandoned for a more luxurious, the Lacedaemonians for a simpler gear.

τὰς...ἐφόδους : the single art. includes the two elements of their insecure life. Cf. τὰ ϝαυάγια καὶ νεκρούς, c. 54. 4; c. 120. 10; ii.35.19; 71. 22; iii.2.6.

τὴν δίαιταν...ἐποιήσαντο : by the resolution of the verb διαιτᾶσθαι into δίαιταν ποιεῖσθαι (on the equivalence of such a periphrasis to a simple verb, see Cobet, Novae Lectiones, p. 257; Kühn. 411, 4; and see on c. 34. 11) the pred. adj. ξυνήθη takes the place of the adv. ξυνήθως. Cf. c. 23. 3, ταχεῖαν τὴν κρίσιν ἔσχε. μεθ᾽ ὅπλων is placed after the noun whose verbal idea it serves to define. Cf. τὴν . . . κατάλυσιν ἐκ τῆς Ἑλλάδος, c. 18. 11; c. 110. 15. On the free position of attribs. in Thuc., see on c. 11. 19. The aor. ἐποιήσαντο sums up the historical results of the previous remarks (com- plexive aor., GMT. 19, N. 2).

ταῦτα...νεμόμενα : i.e. τὸ ταῦτα νέμεσθαι, the fact that these districts (c. 5. 17) of Hellas are still occupied in this way. See on c. 100. 17.

ἐς πάντας ὁμοίων: as by ὁμοίως with πάντες, so here by the adj. with ἐς is implied the widest extension; of the existence of similar modes of life formerly among all without exception. διαιτήματα are special forms of δίαιτα.

ἐν τοῖς πρῶτοι δέ: the words preceding δέ are practically one phrase, so that the conj. only apparently occupies the fourth place. The formula ἐν τοῖς with a sup. occurs nine times in Thuc.: iii.82.2; vii.19.19; 24. 12; 27. 12; 71. 19; viii.68.23; 89. 13; 90. 4. Herbst, Philol. 16, p. 345 ff., explains it rather as restrictive of the sup. than as intensifying it; i.e. ἐν τοῖς is used when the writer wishes to suggest not absolute preëminence, but prominence among competitors who may be on a par. H. 652; Kühn. 349 b. 7, p. 27.— 7. ἀνειμένῃ τῇ διαίτῃ: the dat. being merely one of respect with the verb, and having a pred. partic., has nearly the effect of a gen. abs.; when their mode of life had once relaxed from its old severity, they adopted habits of greater luxury. Cf. ii.100.25.

αὐτοῖς: the dat. placed thus early in the sentence stands in the most general relation to the whole, among them. Cf. c. 48. 9.

οὐ πολὺς...φοροῦντες : i.e. οὐ πρὸ πολλοῦ ἔτι ἐφόρουν, “till quite recent times they still wore”; and so διὰ τὸ ἁβροδίαιτον, on account of the spread of delicate habits, gives the reason of their maintaining these fashions, not of their leaving them off. For this use of ἐπειδή, since, cf. 20; iii.68.31; viii.68.27. On the long linen tunics, which were peculiarly Ionian, and were later superseded by shorter ones of wool, see Becker, Charicles, p. 414, Eng. Trans. Thuc. assumes the early fashion to have spread from Athens to Ionia, and not the reverse.

καὶ χρυσῶν...τριχῶν : the mode of wearing the hair in a knot on the top of the head with the insertion of a pin in the form of a cicada must have been as characteristic a mark of antiquated manners as the use of a queue or pigtail with us. Cf. Ar. Eq. 1331, τεττιγοφόρας, ἀρχαίῳ σχήματι λαμπρός, and Nub. 984, ἀρχαῖά γε καὶ Διπολιώδη καὶ τεττίγων ἀνάμεστα. ἐνέρσει, from ἐνείρειν, a word probably formed by Thuc., and occurring again only in late writers.

τὸ ξυγγενές: i.e. τὴν ξυγγένειαν. See on c. 2. 19.

σκευή: see on c. 2. 12.—κατέσχε: aor. of the historical fact, not descriptive (κατεῖχε).—καὶ ἐς τὸν νῦν τρόπον: sc. οὔσῃ, a second attrib. to ἐσθῆτι, and conforming to the present mode.

πρῶτοι ἐχρήσαντο: were the first to adopt; aor. as in c. 3. 8.— καὶ ἐς τὰ ἄλλα...κατέστησαν : and as to the rest of their habits, the wealthier of them fell into a style of living pretty nearly on a par with that of the mass of the people. τὰ μείζω for the more usual τὰ πλείω, perhaps because land formed the basis of wealth at Sparta.

τε: and so also. Cf. c. 4. 5; 5. 19.

ἐς τὸ φανερόν: adv. to ἀποδύντες, giving the pregnant meaning, stripping and coming forward publicly. Cf. ii.4.15, χρησάμενος ἐς τὸν μοχλόν.

λίπα : with oil, adv. with ἠλείψαντο, as often in Hom.: Κ 577; Ξ 171; Σ 350; γ 466; ζ 96; κ 364. It is probably a mutilated instrumental or dat. case.—μετὰ τοῦ γυμνάζεσθαι: on occasion of their gymnastic exercise. Cf. v.25.12, μετ᾽ ἀνοκωχῆς οὐ βεβαίου. Kühn. 439, 1. The phrase belongs to both the verbs.

τὸ δὲ πάλαι...ἠγωνίζοντο : the stress of the statement lies on the partic., = διαζώματα εἶχον ἀγωνιζόμενοι. Eustath., on Hom. Ψ 638, and Dion. Hal. vii. 72 say that the runners at the Olympic games left off the girdle first in Ol. 15., B.C. 720; but it may be assumed that Thuc. here means that the contestants in other contests did not disuse it till much later.

πέπαυται: sc. τὸ διαζώματα ἔχοντας ἀγωνίζεσθαι, the practice has ceased. But Reiske and Ullrich prefer πέπαυνται.

ἔτι δὲ καὶ κτἑ.: ἔτι belongs to νῦν, ἐν to the two following dats., which are separated to lay stress on each. The two clauses ἆθλα τίθεται . . . δρῶσι are arranged in parataxis, though the former is in sense subord., = ὅταν ἆθλα τιθῆται, οἱ ἀθληταὶ διεζωμένοι τοῦτο δρῶσι, i.e. ἀγωνίζονται. See on c. 5. 11. On βαρβάροις ἔστιν οἷς, = βαρβάρων ἐνίοις, see G. 152, N. 2; H. 998; Kühn. 554, 5.— 23. πολλὰ καὶ ἄλλα: acc. of inner obj. to διαιτώμενον (G. 159; H. 715), with ὁμοιότροπα as its pred. adj., with adv. meaning. Cf. vii.77.9.

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