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The forbearance we have shown in our dealings with our allies has so spoiled them, that they break out into complaints if they are thwarted in any way.

καὶ ἐλασσούμενοι κτἑ.: we have here the proof of the concluding words of c. 76. St.'s is probably the correct interpretation of this passage, adopted in the main by Cl. It depends on these particulars: (1) The former καί = καίπερ and brings out the concessive force of the two partics. (2) ταῖς . . . δίκαις refers to what are commonly called δίκαι ἀπὸ ξυμβόλων, i.e. commercial treaties originally made between independent states, in accordance with which disputes in matters of trade (ex contractu) were decided upon certain fixed rules in the courts of the defendant's city. As Athens had no doubt such treaties with many of her allies before their subjection to tribute, there is no reason to suppose they were abrogated after that change in their political status. (3) τὰς κρίσεις refers to the compulsory jurisdiction which Athens enforced upon her allies in her own courts in suits arising ex delicto between Athenians and citizens of subject states, and also between citizens of subject states by way of appeal, when the sentence in the local court was either death, exile, or disfranchisement. Probably it soon came to pass that the more important of such cases were brought to Athenian courts in the first instance. (4) αὐτοῖς does not agree with ἡμῖν but means for them, i.e. for the allies. The passage may be thus paraphrased: “For even though we exact less than our power would justify in cases decided under commercial treaties made with our allies, and though we have established for them trials in our own courts on the basis of impartial laws for us and them, we are thought to be litigious.” Cf. Dem. LVI. 14, ἡγούμενοι δεῖν ἐλαττοῦσθαι τι καὶ συγχωρεῖν ὥστε μὴ δοκεῖν φιλόδικοι εἶναι. See Am. J. of Ph. V. p. 298 ff., and I. p. 4 ff.

αὐτῶν: i.e. τῶν ξυμμάχων.

τοῖς καὶ...μετρίοις οὖσι : placed for emphasis before the interr. διότι, why. Cf. c. 19. 3 (ὅπως); 120. 9 (ἤν); 10. 5 (εἰ). Kühn. 606, 6; Kr. Spr. 54, 17, 7.

βιάζεσθαι γάρ: this gives the reason of some suppressed thought, like εἰκότως. See Ullrich, Beitr. z. Erkl. note 119. The assonance of βιάζσθαι, δικάζεσθαι gives a kind of proverbial character to the sentence.

ἀπὸ τοῦ ἴσου: on a basis of equality; with ὁμιλεῖν again, iii.11.3. Cf. c. 99.. 7; 136. 15; 140. 31; 143. 14; ii.89.5; iii.84.7; iv.19.11; v.101.2. Also ἀπὸ τῆς ἴσης.

παρὰ τὸ μὴ οἴεσθαι χρῆναι : the neg. which properly belongs to χρῆναι is attracted to οἴεσθαι, after the analogy of οὔ φημι, οὐ νομίζω, οὐκ ἐῶ, against their conviction that it ought not so to be. Since with χρῆναι is to be supplied from what follows, ἐλασσωθῆναι αὐτούς, the neg. μή is not pleonastic (Bonitz) nor to be bracketed (Kr.).

γνώμῃ...τὴν ἀρχήν : whether by a decree or by some exercise of power required by the interests of our empire.καὶ ὁπωσοῦν: even in any degree whatever, ever so little. Cf. vii.60.20; viii.90.16; 91. 21; with οὐδέ, vii.49.7.— 10. οὐ τοῦ πλέονος κτἑ.: τὸ πλέον is the advantage of an equal standing in the courts of law, which is of far greater moment, on the whole, than the occasional acts of interference rendered necessary by the interests of the leading state. This indispensable subordination is called here τὸ ἐνδεές, what is lacking, “the trifling restrictions they have to submit to.” It is better to govern τοῦ ἐνδεοῦς by στερισκόμενοι repeated, than with Cl., B., Kr. to make it depend on χαλεπώτερον φέροντες. They refer to ii.62.18. But there αὐτῶν is bracketed by Dobree and changed to αὐτῷ by Madvig. The const. here preferred is adopted by Sh., St., and Madvig, Adv. I. 311, who says, τὸ ἐνδεές est quod deest ad spem explendam; hoc qui non accipit, eo privari videtur.

ἀπὸ πρώτης: from the first, with no definite ellipsis. See on c. 14. 15. With art., vii.43.35.—τὸν νόμον: legality, pretence of law: a rare use, yet similar to that in ii.53.13; iii.45.8; 56. 5.— 13. ἐκείνως δέ: i.e. εἰ φανερῶς ἐπλεονεκτοῦμεν: the thought, not the statement, being regarded as remote. Cf. iii.46.8; vi.11.10. δέ is epexegetic, not adversative.—ὡς οὐ: after verbs of neg. meaning, ‘doubt,’ ‘deny,’ etc., οὐ sometimes follows ὡςὅτι) introducing a finite verb, thus continuing the neg. idea of the governing verb. Cf. μή with inf., c. 76. 15. H. 1029 a; Kühn. 516, 3 b. ἀντέλεγον here = contest, deny (not ‘rejoin,’ as in c. 28. 16). Cf. c. 86. 3; viii.24.27.

τε: inferential, as c. 67. 3; 76. 16. ἀδικούμενοι as opposed to βιαζόμενοι implies stealth or overreaching.

ἀπὸ τοῦ ἴσου: Cl. regards this and τοῦ κτείσσονος, with Herbst, as masc. But they are probably neut. Sh. explains: “for the one (ἀδίκημα) is thought to be, when the start is made from a position of equality, an act of overreaching; the other, when it is made from one of superiority, an act of compulsion.”— 18. πάσχοντες ἠνείχοντο: cf. ii.74.3; v.69.8; vi.16.20. G. 279; H. 983.

εἰκότως: advs. are often thus placed with emphasis at the end of sentences, but should not be separated by punctuation from what precedes.—τὸ παρὸν γὰρ κτἑ.: here the argument passes to the general consideration that superior power is always felt as a grievance by those who have to submit to it.

ὑμεῖς γ᾽ ἂν οὖν: cf. c. 76. 18. Kühn. 508, 2 a.—καθελόντες: having overthrown; with acc. of person, iii. 13. 33; iv.85.7; of thing (δύναμιν, ἀρχήν), v.14.14; vi.11.13; of both, c. 16. 4; Hdt. i.71.3.—ἄρξαιτε: you should attain power. See on c. 3. 8.— 21. τάχα: generally in Attic expresses probability, and except viii.94.8 constantly in Thuc. with ἄν; but here it includes also its primary temporal meaning. So also when it is combined with ἴσως: vi.10.14; 34. 9; 78. 16.—τὸ ἡμέτερον δέος: see on c. 33. 19; 69. 30.

μεταβάλοιτε: short for τῇ τῶν πραγμάτων μεταβολῇ ἀποβάλοιτε.

δἰ ὀλίγου ἡγησάμενοι : after you had only for a short time held the hegemony. δἰ ὀλίγου, of time. Cf. ii.85.9; iii.43.14.

ὑπεδείξατε: showed a glimpse of. Cf. iv.86.19.— ὁμοῖα γνώσεσθε: you shall adopt such principles: so often with neut. pl., iii.57.3; v.36.10.

ἄμικτα τοῖς ἄλλοις: i.e. τοῖς τῶν ἄλλων (c. 71. 9), incompatible with (not corresponding to) the habits of others, and therefore not conducive to frank intercourse.—τά τε καθ᾽ ὑμᾶς: τε belongs by hyperbaton not to the noun but to the whole sentence; ἔχετε and χρῆται are opposed.

εἷς ἕκαστος: the reference is mainly to Pausanias.—ἐξιών: when he goes abroad in command. Cf. c. 95. 23; iv.5.3; v.34.2; vi.37.18.— 26. οἷς...νομίζει : dat. as with χρῆσθαι. Cf. ii.38.3; iii.82.65; Hdt. ii.50.14. Kühn. 425, 5.

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