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It was only with the gradual suppression of piracy that the Greek states increased in stability and magnitude.

οὐχ ἧσσον: i.e. to a still greater extent than the Greeks. Cf. c. 74. 17; 82. 19, etc.οἱ νησιῶται: here exclusive of the Greeks, who are mentioned as islanders in c. 7. 7, and resuming the notice of the barbarians in c. 4. 4; 5. 3. The piratical habits of the Phoenicians are mentioned in Hom. ξ 288; ο 415. The words Κᾶρές τε . . . Φοίνικες are added to account for the previous statement.

ᾤκησαν: inhabited, the aor., as in c. 7. 7, referring collectively to all the occupants of the islands to the time of Minos, who οἰκιστὴς πρῶτος τῶν πλείστων [νήσων] ἐγένετο, c. 4. 3.—μαρτύριον δέ (only of the last remark, οὗτοι . . . ᾤκησαν): Δήλου γάρ : cf. the fuller expressions in c. 2. 20; 3. 1. Here only is μαρτύριον so used: but τεκμήριον in ii.15.20; 39. 10; 50. 7; iii.66.1. This purification took place in the sixth year of the war, B.C. 426. Cf. iii. 104.—καθαιρομένης κτἑ.: the pres. partic. expresses the whole course of the cleansing, the aor. ἀναιρεθεισῶν a particular incident of it. The verb ἀναιρεῖν is used also in iii.104.6 and v.1.6 of the removal of the θῆκαι, which must mean movable coffins, which were taken away with their contents (not ‘graves,’ as in iii.58.15).

ὑπὲρ ἥμισυ: see on c. 3. 6. = πλείονες τῶν ἡμίσεων.

τῇ σκευῇ : see on c. 2. 12. Hdt., i.171.14, says the Carians first made use of helmetplumes, and attached devices and handles to shields.

ξυντεθαμμένῃ: attrib. to σκευῇ. Cf. c. 7. 6. See on c. 11. 19.—τῷ τρόπῳ: referring to the position (unknown) of the corpses, as Plut. Sol. 10. § 4 uses this expression when he says θάπτουσι Μεγαρεῖς πρὸς ἕω τοὺς νεκροὺς στρέφοντες, Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ πρὸς ἑσπέραν. The Schol. says that the Phoenicians ποιεῖν ὁρᾶν τοὺς νεκροὺς ἐπὶ δύσιν, but Thuc. is here speaking of the Carians.

καταστάντος δὲ κτἑ.: resumes the account from c. 4.

πλοϊμώτερα: see on c. 7. 2. The neut. pl. with γίγνεσθαι, also ii.10.5; iv.108.9; viii.55.8.—παρ᾽ ἀλλήλους: as if, instead of the impers. expression, ἐπεραιοῦντο or ἐπεμίγνυσαν οἱ Ἕλληνες had preceded.

ἐκ τῶν νήσων: attached proleptically to the subj., through the influence of ἀνέστησαν, were expelled. G. 191, N. 6; H. 788 a; Kr. Spr. 50, 8, 10; Kühn. 448 (attraction of prep.). Cf. c. 18. 1; ii.80.7; iii.5.1, etc.— 10. ὅτε περ: just when, or when, that is. Cf. Hdt. v.99.6. κατῴκιζε (impf. of repeated action), like οἰκιστὴς ἐγένετο, c. 4. 3, denotes the introduction of permanent civil order.

καὶ οἱ παρὰ θάλασσαν...ᾤκουν : a second result of the security fostered by Minos. Contrast with c. 2. § 2. The impfs. ποιούμενοι, ᾤκουν, περιεβάλλοντο, γιγνόμενοι, express the gradually advancing development.— 13. ὡς πλουσιώτεροι ἑαυτῶν γιγνόμενοι: being conscious (ὡς) that they were advancing in wealth. ἑαυτῶν, than they were before; the comp. with gen. of refl. pron. measures progress by change in the subj. itself. Cf. iii.11.6; vi.72.22; vii.66.14. Frequent in Hdt. H. 644; Kühn. 543, 6.— 14. ἐφιέμενοι γὰρ...πόλεις : the two clauses, placed on the same level by τε . . . τε (cf. c. 12. 10; 23. 4; 26. 11, 15; 57. 3; ii.22.3: in prose καί . . . καί is more usual) depict the same progress from the same motive on the part of rulers as well as subjects. δουλεία is often used of political dependence. Cf. c. 122. 15; ii.63.4; v.69.5. Here gen. τῶν κρεισσόνων as if with δοῦλοι. For the pl. περιουσίας, see on c. 7. 2. ὑπηκόους is pred. to προσεποιοῦντο, as ἱκανόν, μέγα with αἴρειν, c. 90. 20; ii.75.22. Cf. ii.30.6; Hdt. i.6.7, τοὺς δὲ φίλους προσεποιήσατο.

καὶ ἐν τούτῳ...ὄντες : and as they became more fully organized in this way, i.e. than in the previous age.— 17. ὕστερον χρόνῳ: denotes always a considerable interval. Cf. iii.85.10; v.34.14; vi.3.8; or with χρόνῳ placed first, c. 64. 8; 100. 6; iv.81.9; v.5.14; here it indicates the point in the gradual progress of society at which external action became possible; and so the subject of the Trojan war is resumed from c. 3. 22. The following c. 9-11 establish the τεκμήριον (c. 1. 12) of the lack of naval power in early times.

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