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The Syracusans dispatch ships and intercept some supplies sent out to the Athenians, and by the announcement of their success arouse their Peloponnesian allies to lend further assistance. Before Syracuse both sides seek by all manner of attacks to do each other as much harm as possible, and especially violent is the contest about the palisade built by the Syracusans for the protection of their ships. The Syracusans send ambassadors to the Sicel cities to try to arouse them to take a more active part in the war. 3. ᾤχετο: here, as always (c. 7. 6; 12. 3; 46. 6), expressive of haste. This one ship had separated immediately from the rest, and set off with all haste on its voyage to the Peloponnese. ὅπως...γίγνεσθαι : ὅπως from Vat., instead of οἵπερ, has been adopted by the later editt. The rel. pron. with the subjv. of purpose cannot be established in Att. τε, likewise from Vat., is indispensable, as τὰ σφέτερα is contrasted with ἐκεῖ πόλεμον. ἐν ἐλπίσι as below in 43; c. 46. 6; i.74.22; iv.70.20. Cf. ἐς ἐλπίδα ἐλθεῖν, ii.56.12. αἱ ἕνδεκα: see on c. 22. 6.—τὴν Ἰταλίαν: in Thuc. used only of the peninsula south of the river Laus and Metapontum. See on vi.2.19; i.12.14. χρημάτων γέμοντα: the order of Vat. more forcible than the Vulgate γέμοντα χρημάτων. For χρήματα, see on c. 24. 7. 8. τῶν πλοίων: the gen. with ἐπι- τυγχάνειν unusual. Cf. iii.3.23; Xen. Oec. 2. 3; 12. 20; Plat. Phil. 61 d; Ar. Plut. 245. Καυλωνιάτιδι: the district of Caulonia north of Locri Epizephyrii, on the edge of the Sila forest, which produced much building timber and pitch. Cf. Strabo, vi.1.9. 12. μία τῶν ὁλκάδων...ὁπλίτας : prob. one of the fleet which sailed from Taenarum (c. 19. § 3, 4), among the commanders of which was also a Thespian named Hegesander. This ship perhaps lost its course on the voyage διὰ πελάγους, and thus was detained longer than the others. The Thespians are reckoned with the Boeotians in c. 19. § 3. 14. φυλάξαντες δ᾽ αὐτούς: Schol. τηρήσαντες καιρὸν ἐς τὸ ἐπιθέσθαι αὐτοῖς. Cf. c. 4. 36, πέμπει ἐς φυλακὴν αὐτῶν. πρὸς τοῖς Μεγάροις: the Hyblaean Megara. See on vi.4.8.— 16. αὐτοῖς ἀνδράσι: dat. of accompaniment. G. 188, 5 N.; H. 774 a. Cf. ii.90.26; iv.14.6; viii.102.15.— 17. οὐκ ἐδυνήθησαν: sc. λαμβάνειν. ἀλλ̓ ἀποφεύγουσιν : for change of subj., see on i.26.17. 20. πρὸ τῶν παλαιῶν νεωσοίκων: the regular dockyard (νεώριον) of the Syracusans was, acc. to c. 22. § 1, in the smaller harbour. But for the protection of the ships temporarily lying in port there were ship-houses also on the shore of the great harbour, under which every ship found shelter. In time of peace they needed no further protection; but now the Syracusans had built a palisade to defend them from the attacks of the Athenians. ἐντὸς ὁρμοῖεν: i.e. behind the protecting palisade. ἐντός is similarly used in c. 5. 14; ii.83.26; vi.67.9; 75. 2. 23. προσαγαγόντες γὰρ κτἑ.: in explanation of περὶ τῶν σταυρῶν ἀκροβολισμός in 19.—μυριοφόρον: since the reading seems to be established (occurring also in Poll. ii. 82 and Strab. xvii.1.26), we must take a talent as unit of measure, and interpret, “a ship of 10,000 talents burden.” Cf. iv.118.28, πλοίῳ ἐς πεντακόσια τάλαντα ἄγοντι μέτρα; also Hdt. i.194.17; ii.96.16. Lobeck's conjecture μυριαμφόρον (Ad Phryn. p. 663) is therefore to be rejected.—αὐτοῖς: sc. τοῖς σταυροῖς (Schol. τοῖς σταυρώμασι δηλονότι). πύργους τε...καὶ παραφράγματα : this vessel of about 258 tons (if the talents were Att., or 357, if Aeginetan), with its wooden towers and bulwarks (παραφράγματα, also iv.115.7), served as a floating fortress for the troops. From its deck they repelled the attacks of the enemy and protected the operations of their own men (οἱ δ᾽ ἐκ τῆς ὁλκάδος ἀντέβαλλον in 27). These operations consisted in the attempt, made from the smaller boats, partly to fasten cords to the stakes and then to pull them out with windlasses, partly to dive under the water and saw them off. See App. 29. τῆς σταυρώσεως ἡ κρύφιος: the hidden part of the palisade, after the analogy of ἡ πλείστη τῆς στρατιᾶς, c. 3. 15. ὑπερέχοντας: as in iii.23.26. μὴ οὐ προϊδών τις...περιβάλῃ τὴν ναῦν : dependent on δεινὸν ἦν and explanatory of προσπλεῦσαι. οὐ belongs only to προϊδών. ἕρμα is a rock. Cf. Hdt. vii.183.6, where ἐπελαύνειν is used, as here περιβάλλειν. μισθοῦ : for pay. Cf. iv.124.22; v.6.7. The word indicates that the κολυμβηταί (also iv.26.28) were esp. trained for their business. 35. οἷον εἰκός: elliptical, as οἷα εἰκός in ii.54.3; vi.69.15. πείραις: stratagems, found in pl. only here, though the sense is the same as in iii.20.8. 38. ἐς τὰς πόλεις: sc. τῶν Σικελιω- τῶν. They hoped to make most impression on these through ambassadors from the Dorian cities of Hellas. The result of the mission is stated in c. 32. ἀγγέλλοντας: the rather unusual pres. partic. of purpose (as in c. 3. 4; iii.52.11; vi.88.62), with which are connected δηλώσοντας and ἀξιώσοντας (42, 43), forming subord. explanatory clauses. οὐ...μᾶλλον ἤ : not . . . so much, as, the first member being completely subordinated, as in i.73.17. τά τε ἄλλα δηλώσοντας...καὶ ἀξιώσοντας : the ultimate main object is brought out more forcibly by the position of τά τε ἄλλα. The connexion would be disturbed by αὖ, which is inserted before δηλώσοντας in all the Mss. except Vat. It was perhaps a marginal note of some reader, referring to 4 above. ἐπ᾽ αὐτούς: sc. τοὺς Ἀθηναίους. ὡς...προσδοκίμων ὄντων : the expectation of this danger, which could be averted only by timely help, was to be the excuse for the demand (ὡς). ἄλλῃ στρατιᾷ: cf. c. 16. 6.—αὐτοί: Cl. explains in his last edit., “they alone, the Syracusans, without the help of the others.” But this does not agree with the request just referred to. The contrast is between the Athenians on the one side (αὐτῶν), and the Syracusans and their allies on the other (αὐτοί). διαπεπολεμησόμενον: so Vat. (which is more forcible than διαπολεμησόμενον of the vulgate), there would be an end of the war. Cf. c. 14. 13, and Liv. xxiii. 13, debellatum mox fore, si adniti paulum voluissent, rebantur. The impers, partic. in acc. abs. with ὡς is co-ord. with the gen. abs., as in c. 15. 7.
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