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A corps of 1300 Thracian mercenaries arriving after Demosthenes's departure is sent back. Description of the evils that Athens suffered from the occupation of Decelea.

1. Θρᾳκῶν τῶν μαχαιροφόρων τοῦ Διακοῦ γένους: in μαχαιροφόρων we have the characteristic mark of the Thracians. Cf. ii.96.10; Xen. Cyrop. vi.2.10; Aesch. Pers. 56 (τὸ μαχαιροφόρον ἔθνος ἐκ πάσης Ἀσίας ἕπεται). Tac. Ann. iii. 38 mentions the Dii along with the Odrusae.

τοῦ αὐτοῦ θέρους τούτου: so Vat. for the vulgate, ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ θέρει τούτῳ, the gen. indicating the time within which anything takes place, without definitely fixing the date, during this same summer. See on vi.97.1.

ἔδει: as often, of an arrangement previously made. Cf. ii.5.1; 92. 24; iii.95.18; iv.76.17; v.42.4.

5. ὕστερον: too late. Cf. c. 29. 1; ii.80.35.

ἀποπέμπειν: send back. ἀπο- as in ἀποδιδόναι.

ἔχειν : with pregnant force, retain.πρὸς τὸν ἐκ τῆς Δεκελείας πόλεμον: i.e. against the incursions made from Decelea, not referring to Δεκελεικὸς πόλεμος proper.

δραχμήν: the usual pay of hoplites amounted to four obols. See Boeckh, P. E. p. 373.

ἐλάμβανον: Vat. for ἐλάμβανεν. The subj. is οἱ Θρᾷκες, and ἕκαστος is in pred. appos. to the pl. subj., as in ii.87.31; iii.38.24; iv.80.15; vi.69.19.

ἐπειδὴ...ἐπῳκεῖτο : Cl. explains that the occupation (ἐπῳκεῖτο) consisted of two parts: the first, the fortification of the place, expressed by means of the partic. clause (ὑπὸ . . . τειχισθεῖσα); the second, the military operations, expressed by the dat., φρούραις ἀπὸ τῶν πόλεων (sc. τῶν ξυμμάχωνκατὰ διαδοχὴν χρόνου ἐπιούσαις: “by means of garrisons which came in from the allied cities in fixed succession.” But St. explains perhaps more clearly, that the first clause is really subord. to the second, though the two are co-ord. by μέν, δέ, and he cites in support iii. 82. § 1; vi. 69. § 1. Arn. understands, by zeugma, from τειχισθεῖσα, κατεχομένη in the second clause. See App. Cl. connects τῇ χώρᾳ with ἐπιούσαις; but it seems better, with Arn. and St., to take it with ἐπῳκεῖτο. Cf. vi.86.13, ἐποικοῦντες ὑμῖν; v.51.4, οὐ γὰρ ἐπ᾽ ἄλλῃ τινὶ γῇ τὸ χωρίον ἐτειχίσθη; Paus. iv.26.5, ἀξιόμαχον πόλιν ἐποικίσαι Λακεδαιμονίοις. See on c. 19. 9.

ἔβλαπτε, ἐκάκωσε: the subj. is to be inferred from the foregoing clause, viz. τοῦτο, τὸ τὴν Δεκέλειαν ἐποικεῖσθαι. πολλά is cognate acc. See on c. 24. 12.—ἐν τοῖς πρῶτον: correctly restored by Bk. instead of πρώτοις. See on c. 19. 19.

ὀλέθρῳ: Kr. objects to this word with χρημάτων; but αἱ πρόσοδοι ἀπώλλυντο in c. 28. 32 supports the present reading.

14. βραχεῖαι γιγνόμεναι αἱ ἐσβολαί: the five incursions of the first period of the war, of which the second (430 B.C.) was the longest, lasting 40 days (ii. 57. § 2), the fifth (425 B.C.) the shortest, lasting only 15 days (iv. 6. § 2).

ἐπικαθημένων: sc. τῶν ἐσβαλόντων.

ὁτὲ μέν, ὁτὲ δέ = ποτὲ μέν, ποτὲ δέ. This usage does not occur again till Arist. and the later writers. But cf. Plat. Phaed. 59 a, ὁτὲ μέν, ἐνίοτε δέ; Theaet. 207 d, ὁτὲ μέν, τοτὲ δέ; Xen. Cyneg. 5. 8, ὁτὲ δέ. Kr. Spr. 25, 10, 12.

τῆς ἴσης φρουρᾶς: Cl. understands this, as opp, to καὶ πλειόνων ἐπιόντων, to mean the regular garrison furnished successively by the different cities (cf. 10, ἀπὸ τῶν πόλεων κατὰ διαδοχὴν χρόνου ἐπιούσαις). Schol., τῆς ἴσης φρουρᾶς, τῆς τεταγμένης δηλονότι. These had to provide for their own support and therefore κατέθεε τὴν χώραν ἐξ ἀνάγκης, i.e. whenever there was need. St. explains cum modo etiam plures invaderent, modo ex necessitate aequalis (i.e. quanta necessitate postulabatur) manus excursionem faceret. See App.

βασιλέως τε παρόντος: the third factor in the Decelean War.

ἐκ παρέργου: also i.142.25. Cf. ἐν παρέργῳ, vi.69.27; Soph. Phil. 473.

21. τῆς χώρας: Schol., τῆς καρπίμου.

πλέον δύο μυριάδες : Boeckh, P. E. p. 55, reckons the number of slaves in Athens in the most flourishing period at 365,000, so that the number here given does not seem incredible.

πολὺ μέρος: Vat. has τὸ πολύ, but most of these slaves could hardly have been handicraftsmen; for very many slaves would be required for household service.— χειροτέχναι: artisans of every kind. See App. to vi.72.10.—ἀπολώλει πάντα: so Vat., which is more expressive than πάντα ἀπολώλει of the rest of the Mss.

ζεύγη: from Vat. instead of ὑποζύγια, since it would be natural acc. to Att. usage to choose for beasts of burden that term from which the citizens of the third class received their name, ζευγῖται.

ὁσημέραι : adv. Kr. Spr. 51, 13, 15.

ἐν γῇ...ταλαιπωροῦντες : the two causes of lameness expressed in unlike manner; first by means of the prep. and its case, then with the partic. ξυνεχῶς ταλαιπωροῦντες, i.e. from the continual exertion. For same change of const., cf. iv.26.13. Kr. connects ἐν γῇ ἀποκρότῳ and ξυνεχῶς with ταλαιπωροῦντες. Either explanation might be correct.

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