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Gylippus leads the land forces against the Athenian fortifications, and simultaneously 80 Syracusan ships sail out against their fleet in the great harbour. The Athenians make hasty preparations for defence by land and sea. 1. ταῦτα: from Vat., for τοιαῦτα, answering to the definiteness and accuracy with which the refitting of the Syracusan ships and its object are described in the preceding chap.—πρός: in proportion to. Cf. v.9.12.—ἐπιστήμην τε καὶ δύναμιν: the former referring to the acknowledged want of skill of their pilots (c. 36. 25), the latter perhaps to the shortness of the time, which did not admit of a greater improvement of the fleet. τεθαρσηκότες: the pf. partic. expresses the confidence which they had felt now for some time.— 3. ἐπεχείρουν: were preparing to attack (impf.). Cf. c. 20. 7. 5. τὸν ἐκ τῆς πόλεως: supplementary explanation which points to the following καὶ οἱ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ὀλυμπιείου.— 6. καθ̓ ὅσον...ἑώρα: = κατὰ τοσοῦτο, ὅσον τοῦ τείχους πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ἑώρα, on that side of it which faced the city. αὐτοῦ depends on καθ᾽ ὅσον. Cf. iii.104.4. On the const. of the prep. with the rel. clause, see Kr. Spr. 51, 13, 6.— οἱ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ὀλυμπιείου: cf. c. 4. 32 ff. ἡ γυμνητεία: found only here. The correct form from Vat. corresponding to the verb γυμνητεύειν; most of the Mss. have γυμνητία. It stands for the concrete οἱ γυμνῆτες (Schol. οἱ ψιλοί), just as levis armatura is used concretely in Lat. The reference is to the ἀκοντισταί of 16.— 9. ἐκ τοῦ ἐπὶ θάτερα: ab altera parte, as in viii.33.7. Kr. Spr. 43, 4, 3. Cf. c. 84. 15; i.87.9.—προσῄει: the agreement with the last noun (ἡ γυμνητεία), which is only in appos., is unusual. ἐπεξέπλεον: so Vat., for ἐξέπλεον, indicating the purpose to attack. ἐπεκπλεῖν is omitted from the lexicon, but warranted by the subst. ἐπέκπλους (viii.20.3). 11. καὶ οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι κτἑ.: Plut. (Nic. 20) states—whether on good grounds or not, cannot be determined —that Nicias was forced into fighting by the zeal of Menander and Eurymedon (c. 16. § 1). ἐπὶ τὰ τείχη: (mounting) upon the walls, against those advancing on the city side (cf. 5). It is opp. to ἀπὸ τῶν τειχῶν in c. 38. 5. ἱππέας τε πολλοὺς καὶ ἀκοντιστάς: sc. ὄντας, the appos. phrase explaining κατὰ τάχος χωροῦντας. The ὁπλῖται were behind these. ἐπὶ τὸν αἰγιαλὸν παρεβοήθουν: i.e. to aid any ship of theirs that might be driven to shore. Cf. c. 34. 10; 53. 5. ναῦς: Dobree and Bk. propose ναυσί as in c. 52. 4; but cf. viii.95.12, ἀνῆγε τὰς ναῦς; Hdt. vii.100.11, etc. For a like variety in const. with αἴρειν, see on i.52.5. ὀγδοήκοντα: the same number with which they fought the first battle; the eleven then lost (c. 23. 19) had therefore been replaced.
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