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The Syracusans undertake to build a third counter-wall against the northern part of the Athenian wall of circumvallation, and make an unsuccessful attack on a weak point of the southern part of their wall. Nicias determines to fortify Plemmyrium at the entrance to the great harbour, and to unite there the fleet and the main body of the land army. But the removal of the army exposes the foragers to the Syracusan cavalry. Twenty triremes are sent to intercept the Corinthian ships which had sailed from Leucas after Gylippus.

2. διὰ τῶν Ἐπιπολῶν...τεῖχος ἁπλοῦν : the cross-wall described in vi. 99. § 3 had been taken and destroyed by the Athenians (vi. 100), and the second Syracusan counterwall in the low ground (vi.101.6) had immediately thereafter (vi.101.16) fallen into their hands. The Syracusans now make the third attempt to hinder the Athenian circumvallation by means of a cross-wall, and as in vi.99.14, ἀπὸ τῆςσφετέραςπόλεως ἀρξάμενοι. It did notrun, however, as there, κάτωθεν τοῦ κύκλου τῶν Ἀθηναίων, but ἄνω, i.e. along the northern height of Epipolae (τὸ πρὸς βορέαν τοῦ κύκλου, vi.99.1), where the Athenians λίθους καὶ ξύλα ξυμφοροῦντες παρέβαλον. In vi.99.16, moreover, the direction of the wall to be built was indicated by the adj. ἐγκάρσιον; here it is expressed adv., πρὸς τὸ ἐγκάρσιον, cross-wise, the wall itself being defined as τεῖχος ἁπλοῦν, as also in the letter of Nicias, c. 11. 14. The wall here begun is continued, c. 5. 1, διὰ τῶν Ἐπιπολῶν, and finished in c. 7. 4, ξυνετείχισαν τὸ λοιπὸν τοῦ ἐγκαρσίου τείχους. See on c. 7. 4.

ἀποτειχίσαι: to complete the circumvallation (aor.).

5. οἵ τε Ἀθηναῖοι...ἐπῄει : vivid effect of the paratactic structure: “scareely had the Athenians, after finishing the lower part of the wall of circumvallation, again occupied their former position on Epipolae, when Gylippus advanced against a weak point of the wall.” Notice also the parallelism of the members in this and the next sent.: the parenthetical insertion of both causal clauses with γάρ, and the corresponding form of the main clauses, ἐπῄει, ἀντεπῄεσαν.

τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις : intentionally added to avoid a misunderstanding; therefore wrongly suspected by v. H.

9. ἔτυχον...αὐλιζόμενοι : they happened to be in bivouac outside (of the walls).

τοὺς σφετέρους: see on c. 1. 27.

ἐποικοδομήσαντες αὐτό: sc. τὸ ἀσθενὲς τοῦ τείχους, they made the wall higher at this weak point. The pred. adj. ὑψηλότερον indicates the effect. G. 166, N. 3; Kr. Spr. 57, 4, 2. Cf. i.37.21; 71. 27; 90. 21; ii.75.22; vi.92.23. —αὐτοὶ μέν: the Athenian main body, since experience had shown that here the danger of a breach was greatest.

τοὺς δὲ ἄλλους ξυμμάχους: the rest (viz.) allies, not opp. to any preceding ξύμμαχοι. G. 142, 2, N. 3; H. 705; Kr. Spr. 50, 4, 11. Cf. i.2.12; 128. 21; ii.14.3; 77. 12; iii.19.8; iv.100.12.

τὸ ἄλλο τείχισμα: the wall running across Epipolae, on both sides of the κύκλος.

15. τὸ Πλημμύριον: this place, the situation of which Thuc. describes so exactly, becomes henceforth the critical point in the siege of Syracuse. “The loss of Plemmyrium had for the Athenians the same consequences as that of Fort L'Eguillette for the English, when General Dugommier (with Bonaparte's assistance) drove them from the heights (Siege of Toulon, 1793).” Niebuhr, Ancient History, H. p. 155.

τὸ στόμα στενὸν ποιεῖ: cf. c. 59. 6, τὸ στόμα ὀκτὼ σταδίων μάλιστα.

καὶ εἰ τειχισθείη : acc. to Greek usage the influence of the rel. pron. (ἥπερ) is more strongly felt in the second clause than in English. We should begin an independent sent. with these words.

ῥᾷον...ἔσεσθαι : the unusual adv. for the adj. is in accordance with the usage of Thuc. Cf. c. 28. 3, θᾶσσον οὖσα; iv.10.13, μὴ ῥᾳδίως αὐτῷ πάλιν οὔσης τῆς ἀναχωρήσεως. The adv. is to be const. as if we had ῥᾷον αὐτῷ ἐφαίνετο τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ἐσκομισθήσεσθαι. Kr. Spr. 62, 2, 3.

δἰ ἐλάσσονος γὰρ πρὸς τῷ λιμένι τῷ τῶν Συρακοσίων ἐφορμήσειν σφᾶς: sc. τοῦς Ἀθηναίους, they themselves would keep watch upon the harbour of the Syracusans at a less distance (i.e. from the Syracusan ships) than before. δἰ ἐλάσσονος also in vi.75.3. πρὸς τῷ λιμένι τῷ τῶν Συρακοσίων refers to the part of the great harbour near the city where the Syracusan fleet lay. Kr. and St. strike out τῷ τῶν Συρακοσίων. Cl. wrongly takes ἐφορμήσειν to mean “lie on watch” (of ships esp. detailed for this purpose), as in c. 3. 21. The main point here is the blockade which the whole Athenian fleet would be able to make from this nearer point, not being obliged, as heretofore, to put out from the further corner of the great harbour, whenever the enemy moved. The Schol. apparently understands it thus: τειχισθέντος δὲ τοῦ Πλημμυρίου τὴν ἐφόρμησιν αὐτόθεν δἰ ὀλίγου χωρίου ἔσεσθαι.

ἐπαναγωγὰς ποιήσεσθαι : (with Vat., as in c. 34. 26, instead of ἐπαγωγάς) = ἐπανάξεσθαι (viii.42.8), put to sea against an advancing squadron of hostile ships.—ἤν τι ναυτικῷ κινῶνται: sc. οἱ Συρακόσιοι, if they should bestir themselves with the fleet. On this medio-pass. use, see Kr. Spr. 52, 6, 1. Cf. c. 50. 33.

προσεῖχέ τε ἤδη...πολέμῳ : and in general, from now on, he devoted himself more to naval warfare. προσέχειν in same sense in c. 75. 44. τε gives the effect of a natural result, as in i.67.2; 76. 16, etc.

ἀνελπιστότερα: cf. c. 47. 9; v.102.3.

στρατιάν: some troops, i.e. those that were not necessary for guarding the fortifications on Epipolae and in the low ground near the great harbour. The main camp of the Athenians continued to be along their walls.— 25. ἐξετείχισε: the aor. to express speedy completion; cf. c. 26. 17; iv.4.4.—τρία φρούρια: these forts were to supply the place of the arsenal on Labdalum, which had been captured (c. 3. § 4), and under their protection lay most of the fleet.

27. τῶν πληρωμάτων κάκωσις ἐγένετο: = τὰ πληρώματα ἐκακώθη (cf. the use of κακοῦν in c. 24. 12; iii.87.6; vi.18.25). πληρώματα signifies here the whole ship's crew, ναῦται as well as ἐπιβάται. Cf. c. 12. 10; 13. 6.

τῷ τε...οἱ ναῦται : the causal partic. (χρώμενοι) and the temporal clause (ὁπότε ἐξέλθοιεν), forming together the prot., are co-ordinated by τε καί. Kr. Spr. 59, 2, 3. With the principal verb διεφθείροντο, in the impf., they portray the gradual increase of the trouble.—κρατούντων τῆς γῆς: since they were masters of the (adjacent) country. Cf. i.111.5; vi.23.7.

τοῖς Συρακοσίοις: the socalled dat. of the agent with the pass., really implying interest, as in v.29.3.

ἐπὶ τῇ...πολίχνῃ : at the fort built at the Olympieium, as mentioned vi.75.5.—ἐτετάχατο: such Ion. forms of the pf. and plpf., otherwise unusual in Att., occur also in iii.13.16, 18; iv.31.7; v.6.23. Kr. Spr. 30, 2, 7.

35. τὰς λοιπάς: cf. c. 2. § 1.— 36. ἐς φυλακὴν αὐτῶν: i.e. in order to watch for them.

τὴν προσβολὴν τῆς Σικελίας: the approach to Sicily. Cf. iv.1.5; vi.48.8.

ναυλοχεῖν αὐτάς: this unusual word is explained by Photius, ναυλοχεῖν: ναῦς λοχᾶν καὶ ἐνεδρεύειν. Θουκυδίδης ἑβδόμῳ. αὐτάς is obj. of ναυλοχεῖν. Cf. Appian, Bell. Civ. iv. 82, Μοῦρκος ἐν Πελοποννήσῳ ναυλοχῶν Κλεοπάτραν.

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