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Just at this time Demosthenes and Eurymedon reach the harbour of Syracuse with a fleet of 73 triremes and a reinforcement of 5,000 hoplites and numerous light troops. Demosthenes, in view of the unfavourable results of the previous dilatory manner of carrying on the war, urges Nicias to a speedy attack, by way of Euryelus, upon the Syracusan cross-wall.

1. ἐν τούτῳ: i.e. while the Syracusans were still making preparations (παρεσκευάζοντο). The day cannot be definitely determined. Grote (VII. c. 60, p. 141) considers it the second day after the sea-fight.

ἀπὸ τῶν Ἀθηναίων: as to Bk.'s conjecture, ἀπὸ τῶν Ἀθηνῶν, see on c. 18. 4.—παραγίγνονται: refers to the entrance of the βοήθεια into the great harbour, and the union with the fleet of Nicias. It is strange that the Syracusans who controlled the mouth of the harbour (c. 36. § 6) made no attempt to prevent the entrance. Plut. Nic. 21 states that Demosthenes sailed in ὅπλων κόσμῳ καὶ παρασήμοις τριήρων καὶ πλήθει κελευστῶν καὶ αὐλητῶν θεατρικῶς καὶ πρὸς ἔκπληξιν πολεμίων ἐξησκημένον; but on what authority is not known.

τρεῖς καὶ ἑβδομήκοντα: this number consists of 65 (c. 20. 7), 15 (c. 31. 26), 2 (c. 33. 23), and Eurymedon's ship (c. 31. 11), minus the 10 given to Conon (c. 31. 21). Since the number is stated with such accuracy, μάλιστα after ἑβδομήκοντα is rightly omitted by Vat. Plut. Nic. 21 agrees with Thuc.—ξὺν ταῖς ξενικαῖς: including those of the allies, i.e. of the Chians (c. 20. 8), the Coreyraeans (c. 31. 26), and the Metapontians (c. 33. 23).—ὁπλίτας...πεντακισχιλίους : Plut. and Diod. agree with Thuc.— 5. βαρβάρους: the 150 ἀκοντισταὶ τοῦ Μεσσαπίου ἔθνους, c. 33. 17.—οὐκ ὀλίγους: Plut. Nic. 21 says ἀκοντιστὰς καὶ τοξότας καὶ σφενδονήτας τρισχιλίων οὐκ ἐλάττους.

8. εἰ πέρας...κινδύνου : if there shall not be to them a final escape from danger. For the prot. with εἰ after κατάπληξις . . . ἐγένετο, see GMT. 77, 1 c. τοῦ ἀπαλλἀγῆναι is not governed by, but is explanatory of πέρας, appos. gen. Kühn. 402 d. Cf. Dem. XL. 40, τί ἂν ἦν πέρας ἡμῖν τοῦ διαλυθῆναι; Hdt. ii.139.2, τέλος δὲ . . . τῆς ἀπαλλαγῆς . . . ὧδε ἔλεγον γενέσθαι.

ὁρῶντες : as if οὐκ ὀλίγον κατεπλάγησαν preceded. The anacoluthon similar to ii.53.13, where κρίνοντες is connected with the acc.; iii.36.8, ἐπικαλοῦντες with αὐτοῖς. Kühn. 493, 1 a.—διὰ τὴν Δεκέλειαν τειχιζομένην: see on c. 28. 25.

οὐδέν: merely repeats the neg. in οὔτε. The correlative of οὔτε is τε.

ἴσον καὶ παραπλήσιον : cf. τοιαῦτα καὶ παραπλήσια in i.22.18; ἴσος καὶ ὁμοῖος, i.27.4; v.27.12; 59. 24.

πανταχόσε: in all directions, only here in Thuc., who uses elsewhere πανταχόθεν, though rather in the sense “for the most various reasons” (i.124.1; ii.53.11; 59. 8; vi.61.18, etc.).

ὡς ἐκ κακῶν: ὡς restrictive, as in iii.113.25: “a feeling of confidence (ῥώμη, see on c. 18. 8 and App. to vi.31.3) was restored so far as it was possible after their misfortunes.” Cf. Hdt. viii.101.1, ταῦτα ἀκούσας Ξέρξης ὡς ἐκ κακῶν ἐχάρη; Liv. x.43.15, agmine incolumi ut ex tanta trepidatione Bovianum preventum. On ὡς, see Kr. Spr. 69, 63, 4.

15. οὐχ οἶόν τε εἶναι: non licere. Cf. iv.22.10; viii.92.23.—οὐδὲ παθεῖν: sc. οἷόν τε εἶναι. Cf. vi.92.6, where ἀξιῶ is understood in like manner after οὐδέ. So St. explains. For Cl.'s view, see App.

φοβερός: inspiring lerror, act. in force as in ii.98.20; iv.126.21, and below (26) δεινότατος.

ἐν Κατάνῃ διεχείμαζεν : cf. vi. 72 ff.

αὐτοί: alone, without help from outside. Cf. ii.15.6; iv.49.5; v.60.4; vi.84.9.

αὐτούς: sc. τοὺς Συρακοσίους, the obj., with which we must supply as subj. τὸ μεταπέμψαι.

οὖν : after a long parenthesis as in c. 6. 7; ii.85.10; iii.95.9; vi.64.13.—ἀνασκοπῶν: reflecting on, renewing the idea of ἰδὼν καὶ νομίσας above. Cf. i.132.8.

μάλιστα: to be closely connected with τῇ πρώτῃ ἡμέρᾳ, on the very first day, so that these words form a strengthening addition to the sup. δεινότατος ἐν τῷ παρόντι. On such intensive expressions with the sup., see Kühn. 349^{b}, 7 c.

τι τάχος: as quickly as possible, in Thuc. only here. Cf. Hdt. ix.7.29. Kühn. 349^{b}, 7 e.— ἀποχρήσασθαι: to get the full benefit. Cf. i.68.20; vi.17.5.—τῇ παρούσῃ τοῦ στρατεύματος ἐκπλήξει: i.e. the consternation caused by his army. The gen. is objective. Kr. Spr. 47, 7, 5.

28. τὸ παρατείχισμα: cf. c. 4. § 1; 7. § 1.

ἁπλοῦν ὄν: cf. c. 4. 3.— ἐπικρατήσειε: from Vat., more expressive than κρατήσειε, which the rest of the Mss. have. Cf. i.2.10, τῆς τροφῆς ἐπικρατεῖν; of persons, iii.93.16; viii.48.9. ἐπικρατῆσαι = get the mastery of; ἐπικρατεῖν (c. 43. 3) = be master of.τῶν τε Ἐπιπολῶν τῆς ἀναβάσεως: the objective gen. placed first, as often. See on i.32.8. The place of ascent was κατὰ τὸν Εὐρύηλον (c. 43. 21; vi.97.11).

καὶ αὖθις: and furthermore, i.e. in consequence thereof. Cf. i.70.9; v.43.16.—τοῦ ἐν αὐταῖς στρατοπέδου: the hostile camp situated there, which is more definitely described, in its three divisions, in c. 43. § 4. Didot and Grote (VII. c. 60, p. 145) refer it to the camp of the Athenians made there after the storming of Euryelus (vi.97.24). They understand αὖθις = for the second time, but certainly incorrectly.

σφᾶς: see on c. 1. 27.

ἐπιθέσθαι: = ἐπιχειρῆσαι, with the idea of haste.—καί οἱ ξυντομωτάτην ἡγεῖτο διαπολέμησιν: “and considered it his shortest way of ending the war.” διαπολέμησιν is pred.; the subj. is to be supplied from ἐπιθέσθαι τῇ πείρᾳ. See App.

35. τρίψεσθαι: wear out, as in vi.18.37. The fut. (Vat.) is necessary with ἀπάξειν.

ἄλλως : Schol. ἀπράκτως. Cf. c. 47. 17; ii.18.8; iv.36.2.

Ἀθηναίους τε τοὺς ξυστρατευομένους: = τούς τε ξυστρατευομένους Ἀθηναίους, i.e. not only the Athenians in the field, but the whole of the citizens at home.

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