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The allies of the Athenians.

1. ἐπὶ Σικελίαν τε καὶ περὶ Σικελίας: for ἐπὶ Σικελίαν with ἐπολέμησαν, see Kr. Spr. 48, 9, 3.

ἐλθόντες: belongs to both fut. partics.— 3. [ἐπὶ Συρακούσας] ἐπολέμησαν : the aor. means not they carried on the war, but they entered into the war (sooner or later), took part in it. ἐπὶ Συρακούσας, against Syracuse, Cl. considers a marginal explanation of ἐπὶ Σικελίαν (1) which has crept into the text. Kr. and St. adopt Bauer's emendation, ἐπὶ Συρακούσαις ἐπολέμησαν = ἐς τὸν ἐπὶ Συρακούσαις πόλεμον κατέστησαν. Arn. holds to ἐπὶ Συρακούσας ἐπολέμησαν and renders came to Syracuse to war, ἐπολέμησαν being synonymous with ἐς πόλεμον, or μετὰ πολέμου, ἦλθον. This would be preferable if πολεμεῖν ἐπί τινα in this sense could be established.—οὐ...τι : not at all. See on c. 55. 9.

μετ᾽ ἀλλήλων στάντες: “choosing their side.” Cf. c. 61. 12; i.33.22; iii.39.12.

ὡς ἕκαστοι τῆς ξυντυχίας...ἔσχον : this is Heilmann's and Bm.'s conjecture, for ἑκάστοις . . . ἔσχεν. (Vat. has ἕκαστοι, prima manu.) ἔχειν is not used impers. in Thuc. The const. is the same as in i.22.14, ὡς ἑκατέρων τις εὐνοίας μνήμης ἔχοι. See on c. 2. 2. ἔσχον (aor. as in v.28.12), inceptive: “according as the individual (states) whether for the sake of their own advantage or through compulsion came into a nearer relationship with (ξυντυχίας) the one side or the other.”

6. Ἀθηναῖοι...Ἴωνες...Δωριέας Συρακοσίους : chiastic order.

ἑκόντες ἦλθον: the hostile relation of the chief contestants was founded also in race difference; here, therefore, there was no need of compulsion from without.—τῇ αὐτῇ: belongs in force also to νομίμοις and governs αὐτοῖς (7).

Λήμνιοι κτἑ.: the occupation of Lemnos by Att. cleruchs was effected by Miltiades, Hdt. vi. 140 ff.; that of Imbrus prob. about the same time; of Aegina, 431 B.C. (cf. ii. 27. § 1, to which τότε refers); of Hestiaea, or Histiaea, 446 B.C. (i.114.16). The city Hestiaea was called after its occupation by the Athenians, in the dialect of the people, Oreus, from the place near by with which it was united; but in public documents and on coins it was called even later Hestiaea. See Bursian, H. p. 407.

οἱ ἐν Εὐβοίᾳ Ἑστίαιαν οἰκοῦντες: perhaps to distinguish it from the city of the same name in Acarnania, mentioned by Steph. Byz. s.v.

ξυνεστράτευσαν: aor. set out with them. ἄποικοι ὄντες giving the reason. Cf. ξυνεστράτευον (13), took part in the expedition with them.

12. ἀπὸ ξυμμαχίας αὐτόνομοι: ἀπὸ ξυμμαχίας gives the cause of their taking part in the expedition; αὐτόνομοι shows the relation they occupy in it. On ἀπό, according to, see Kühn. 430, 1 g. “Thuc. calls all those who have entered into a perpetual alliance with the Athenians to wage war on the barbarians, and who acknowledge their hegemony, ὑπήκοοι ξύμμαχοι, and distinguishes from them those who, like the Corcyraeans, made simply a temporary alliance. The latter are here termed ἀπὸ ξυμμαχίας αὐτόνομοι, elsewhere simply αὐτόνομοι (c. 57. 33; vi.69.23), or πάνυ ἐλευθέρως ξυμμαχοῦντες (vi.85.9). Of the former he distinguished two classes,—the one who, enjoying their own laws and free from tribute, furnish ships of their own accord to the Athenians (cf. vi.85.8, νεῶν παροκωχῇ αὐτονόμους, and below, § 4, 5); the second, those who pay money instead of ships (cf. ii.9.15, πόλεις αἱ ὑποτελεῖς οὖσαι, and below, § 4, 5; the same being called ὑποχειρίους in iii.11.2). And so besides the ἀπὸ ξυμμαχίας αὐτόνομοι there is another class of αὐτόνομοι, who, though really ὑπήκοοι, are considered αὐτόνομοι because they are under no constraint in point of laws and customs in the sphere of their separate governments. (Cf. iii. 10. § 6; 11. § 1; 39. § 2.)” St.

13. καὶ τῶν μὲν ὑπηκόων κτἑ.: as the enumeration of subject and tributary allies follows geographical subdivisions,—i.e. the allies from Euboea, those from the Cyclades, and those from Ionia,—the Chians also are reckoned among the last, since here the geographical point of view is most important; but immediately afterwards, regard being paid to the condition of the ξυμμαχία, the correction is added: τούτων Χῖοι . . . ξυνέσποντο (we should have expected τούτων δὲ Χῖοι). See App.

Τήνιοι: from one of the larger Cyclades; the reading of Vat. only, the others incorrectly Τήιοι.

ξυνέσποντο : aor., as ξυνεστράτευσαν in 11.—τὸ πλεῖστον: adv., for the most part.

οὗτοι πάντες sums up the ὑπήκοοι καὶ φόρου ὑποτελεῖς (13), including the Chians, who geographically are counted with these. Ἴωνες ὄντες emphasizes the point of race, which is still more closely defined by the addition καὶ ἀπ᾽ Ἀθηναίων (sc. ἄποικοι; cf. vi.76.14, ἀπὸ σφῶν).

Δρύοπες: mentioned among the oldest Hellenic inhabitants of Greece, dwelling near Mt. Oeta. Cf. Hdt. viii.43.9. See Hermann, Griech. St. Alt. § 16, note 6. —ὑπήκοοι ὄντες...Δωριέας : though their service was not voluntary, still (ὅμως) it was not unnatural, since they went as Ionians (emphasized by γε, of Vat.) against Dorians. In the cases that follow the race-connexion is sensibly violated.

21. πρὸς αὐτοῖς: i.e. besides the Ionian peoples.

Μηθυμναῖοι: Methymna in Lesbos had been spared the harsh treatment of the remaining Lesbians, iii.50.7, and the inhabitants are named, vi.85.8, along with the Chians, as νεῶν παροκωχῇ αὐτόνομοι. The same relation is here expressed by ναυσὶ καὶ οὐ φόρῳ ὑπήκοοι, paying ser vice with ships, not with tribute, ὑπήκοοι being used in an arbitrarily limited sense.

Αἴνιοι: from Αἶνος, an old Aeol. settlement on the Thracian coast. See Herm. St. Alt. § 76, note 17.

Βοιωτοῖς τοῖς μετὰ Συρακοσίων: the τοῖς which hitherto had rested only on Lindau's conjecture has been lately confirmed by the Ms. in the Brit. Mus. (M. in Stahl). The general designation τοῖς κτίσασι Βοιωτοῖς, “the Boeotians who had colonized the above-named places” had necessarily to be restricted by τοῖς μετὰ Συρακοσίων, “who stood now on the Syracusan side.” With regard to the subject, see Curtius, Gr. Hist. I. p. 127, “Bocotia was the starting point for the emigration (of the Aeolian races), and was considered also in later times the mother-country of the Aeolian colonies.”—κατ᾽ ἀνάγκην: because they were ὑπήκοοι and ὑποτελεῖς. Here the breaking up of the natural relation of κατὰ τὸ ξυγγενές (c. 58. 15; i.6.12; iii.82.36) was brought about by outward compulsion.

Πλαταιῆς δὲ...ἔχθος : the Plataeans on the other hand were influenced in their choice of alliance by their well-grounded hate against the Thebans, therefore εἰκότως. Cl.'s rendering of καταντικρύ, on the other hand, is at least doubtful, Bm. proposes καὶ ἄντικρυς, indeed outright (cf. i.122.15; viii.64.23; 92. 65), which would give exactly the idea of Κερκυραῖοι δὲ . . . σαφῶς in 35 below. κατὰ τὸ ἔχθος, with Vat., referring to wellknown occurrences, the other Mss. κατ̓ ἔχθος.

μόνοι : i.e. no other Boeotians had joined the Athenians. Moreover, the Plataeans here referred to are either such as had found refuge in Athens, e.g. those who succeeded in escaping when Plataea was besieged, iii. 24. § 3, or such as had settled in Scione, v. 32. § 1.

28. Κυθήριοι: repeated to avoid misunderstanding. Cf. c. 86. 10.— 29. ἐπέφερον: this reading of Vat., for ἔφερον, seems to be supported by c. 18. 15; v.18.12.—Ἀργεῖοι γένος: see O. Müller, Dorier, I. p. 113 ff.— 30. ἀποίκοις ἑαυτῶν: cf. vi. 4. § 3.

32. Κεφαλλῆνες μὲν καὶ Ζακύνθιοι: cf. c. 31. 7. The correlative is δέ in 35.

κατὰ τὸ νησιωτικόν: on account of their insular position.

κατειργόμενοι: constrained. Cf. iv.98.18.

σαφῶς: clearly, actually.— 37. τῶν μέν: sc. Κορινθίων.

τῶν δέ : sc. Συρακοσίων.

ἐκ τοῦ εὐπρεποῦς : for appearance's sake. Schol. ἵνα εὐπρεπὴς ἀπολογισμὸς αὐτοῖς .

κατὰ ἔχθος τὸ Κορινθίων : cf. i. 26.— 39. οὐχ ἧσσον: not less, i.e. even more.

οἱ Μεσσήνιοι νῦν καλούμενοι: “more common is the order οἱ νῦν Μεσσήνιοι καλούμενοι, as νῦν Ἑλλὰς καλουμένη, i.2.1; νῦν Θεσσαλία καλουμένη, i.2.14. Cf. ii.99.19. But οἱ has not dropped out after Μεσσήνιοι, as a comparison with ii.29.11, ἐν Δαυλίᾳ τῆς Φωκίδος νῦν καλουμένης, shows. The phrase νῦν καλούμενοι is added because the Helots whom the Athenians had settled at Naupactus (i. 103. § 3) were not in fact all Messenians (i. 101. § 2).” St. See App.

ἐκ Ναυπάκτου...παρελήφθησαν : as stated in c. 31. § 2.—ἐκ Πύλου...ἐχομένης : acc. to iv. 41. § 2 the Athenians had placed the Messenians from Naupactus as a garrison at Pylus (425 B.C.).

φυγάδες οὐ πολλοί: cf. iv. 74. § 2; vi.43.15.—Μεγαρεῦσι...οὖσι : pred. to Σελινουντίοις. The position as in 7 and 23 above.— 43. κατὰ ξυμφοράν: in consequence of their misfortune, i.e. banishment which had brought them to Athens. Schol. ξυμφορὰν ἄρτι τὴν φυγὴν λέγει.

44. ἤδη: from this point (in the enumeration). Cf. ii.96.17. With the last named the motive was ἀνάγκη or ξυμφορά under the controlling influence of the Athenians; those named after this went of their own accord, for even the μισθοφόροι are to be reckoned under this head.

τῆς παραυτίκα ἕκαστοι ἰδίας ὠφελίας: cf. similar consts. in c. 70. 47; vi.69.19. ὠφελίας, although indispensable, is found only in Vat. The meaning seems to be that the 500 Argives mentioned in vi.43.11 had offered themselves of their own accord, as they individually expected profit from the expedition. That the Argives, as the Arcadians, sometimes served as mercenaries, is shown by Ar. Pax, 477.

Μαντινῆς καὶ ἄλλοι Ἀρκάδων: cf. vi.43.12.

ἀεί: from time to time, i.e. in each particular case, opp. to which is καὶ τότε, so this time.πολεμίους: pred. Kr. Spr. 50, 12, 1.—σφίσιν ἀποδεικνυμένους: sc. ὑπὸ τῶν μισθωσάντων.

τοὺς μετὰ Κορινθίων ἐλθόντας Ἀρκάδας : cf. c. 19. 23.—οὐδὲν ἧσσον: with πολεμίους. “As they were accustomed at other times to turn against any who were pointed out to them as enemies (usually of course strangers), so now they had no hesitation in fighting, for the sake of pay, their own countrymen.”

Κρῆτες: cf. vi.43.14.—Αἰτωλοί: they serve now as mercenaries with the Athenians, who had invaded their country in 426 B.C. Cf. iii. 94. ff.

ξυγκτίσαντας: cf. vi. 4. § 3. For the acc., see on c. 40. 13.

ἑκόντας: this reading of Vat., for ἄκοντας, is of course the only one admissible with μετὰ μισθοῦ and in this class of the allies. Cf. 44 above. Valla renders, ultro. On the other hand, ἀποίκους is necessary (Vat. ἐποίκους, cf. ii.27.5), on account of the antithesis (μὴ ξὺνἀλλ᾽ ἐπί).

54. Ἀκαρνάνων τινές: cf. c. 31. 28.

Δημοσθένους,...Ἀθηναίων : objective gens. For proofs of the friendly disposition here alluded to, cf. iii. 7. § 1; 94. § 2; 105. § 3; 107. § 2; 114. § 1.

Ἰονίῳ κόλπῳ: here taken as extending to the west coast of Italy.

ἐν τοιαύταις ἀνάγκαις τότε στασιωτικῶν καιρῶν κατειλημμένολ: Thuc. states in c. 33. 24 ff., concerning Thurii, that the Att. party had prevailed and driven out their opponents; and they were now in such a situation, resulting from party relations (στασιωτικῶν καιρῶν), that they were forced (τοιαύταις ἀνάγκαις) to the alliance with Athens. As Thuc. mentions in c. 33. § 5 factions only among the Thurians, and says that the Metapontians joined the Athenians κατὰ τὸ ξυμμαχικόν, St. thinks, with reason, that we should read Μεταπόντιοι καὶ Θούριοι.

κατειλημμένοι : Reiske's emendation for κατειλημμένων, which would be gen. abs., Θουρίων καὶ Μεταποντίων being understood. The gen. is doubtless an error of the copyist due to the preceding gens.

βαρβάρων δὲ Ἐγεσταῖοι: cf. vi. 2. § 3, 6.

ἐπηγάγοντο: sc. τοὺς Ἀθηναίους.

Σικελῶν : most of the Mss., except Vat., wrongly Σικελιωτῶν. Cf. c. 58. 10; vi. 88. § 4.

Τυρσηνῶν: see on c. 53. 6.

Ἰάπυγες: cf. c. 33. § 4.

ἔθνη ἐστράτευον: neut. pl. with pl. verb, because ἔθνη denotes persons. Kühn. 365 a.

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