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Finally Nicias surrenders to Gylippus, expecting better treatment from him than from the Syracusans. Gylippus now orders the slaughter to be stopped. Of the survivors, however, the smaller part only become state prisoners, for very many are hidden away secretly and scattered as slares over all Sicily. A very large number, too, had been killed, partly in the fighting on the march, partly in the last struggle. Of those who are sold into slavery, many escape later to Catana.

1. νεκρῶν τε πολλῶν: Diod. xiii. 19 puts the loss at the river at 18,000, and the captured at 7,000; but it is evident that he includes the army of Demosthenes.

τοῦ στρατεύματος τοῦ μὲν...τοῦ δέ : part. appos. See on c. 31. 4.

πιστεύσας μᾶλλον: more fully explained, c. 86. § 4.

χρήσασθαι: the same formula also in ii.4.32; iv.69.22.

8. ζωγρεῖν: (from ζῶος and ἄγρα, ἀγρεύειν) the opposite of φονεύειν, meaning not so much take captive as give quarter.

τούς τελοιπούς: answers to καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς τριακοσίους (10). —ὅσους μὴ ἀπεκρύψαντο: sc. οἱ Συρακόσιοι, i.e. so many as had not been hidden away by the Syracusan soldiers, to be kept or sold as slaves.— 10. ἐπὶ τοὺς τριακοσίους: cf. c. 83. § 5.

διεξῆλθον: const., like διαφυγεῖν, with the acc. Cf. Xen. Mem. iii.9.7, τὰς πύλας τοῦ τείχους διεξιών.

τοὺς διωξομένους : the art. with the fut. partic. equiv. to rel. with indef. antec. (Lat. qui with subjv.). Kr. Spr. 50, 4, 3. Cf. ii.51.19; iv.93.13; vi.20.15.

τὸ ἀθροισθὲν τοῦ στρατεύματος, τὸ...διακλαπέν : as to the collective use of the neut. partic., see on c. 43. 44.

ἐς τὸ κοινόν: i.e. as state prisoners. The passage is imitated by Plut. Timol. 29: τῶν αἰχμαλώτων οἱ μὲν πολλοὶ διεκλάπησαν ὑπὸ τῶν στρατιωτῶν, εἰς δὲ κοινὸν ἀπεδείχθησαν πεντακισχίλιοι.

οὐ πολύ : “only about 1000; for the sum total of the captives was about 7000 (c. 87. 19), and of these about 6000 had belonged to the division of Demosthenes (c. 82. 11).” Bm. But the full magnitude of the catastrophe is seen in the fact that eight days before there were still 40,000 men (c. 75. 26).

16. μέρος δέ τι οὐκ ὀλίγον: still to be connected with τοῦ στρατεύματος, the three parts of which are τὸ ἀθροισθὲν ἐς τὸ κοινόν, τὸ διακλαπέν, and μέρος τι οὐκ ὀλίγον ἀπέθανε. This last refers, therefore, to those of the division of Nicias who perished on the eighth day at and in the Assinarus. The losses of the preceding days are expressly distinguished from this in 18: καὶ ἐν ταῖς ἄλλαις προσβολαῖς . . . οὐκ ὀλίγοι ἐτεθνήκεσαν (the plpf. indicating the events lying further back, opp. to ἀπέθανε in 16). With this view, the expression τῶν ἐν τῷ Σικελικῷ πολέμῳ τούτῳ (18) appears in the prop. light. Thuc. here compares only the horrible butchery at the Assinarus (φόνος οὗτος) with the various battles in this Sicilian campaign, including, besides those of the last seven days, the battle about Plemmyrium, c. 22 ff., the night battle on Epipolae, c. 43, the repeated seafights, c. 52, 69 ff. Certainly he had a right to emphasize this as the bloodiest of all (φόνος οὐδενὸς ἐλάσσων). We must, therefore, neither read with the Schol. Ἑλληνικῷ for Σικελικῷ, nor with Dobree and St. omit it. It is also to be observed in connexion with this passage that Thuc. only very seldom uses πόλεμος οὗτος of the Peloponnesian War, but far oftener ὅδε (as the subject of his own history). Cf. c. 87. 20.

δουλεύσαντες: after they had become slares (aor.). Kr. Spr. 53, 5. 2.— καὶ διαδιδράσκοντες ὕστερον: running away afterwards (pres.).

ἐς Κατάνην: to this refers Lys. xx. 24, where Polystratus says ἀνεσώθην ἐς Κατάνην.

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