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Antipater

*)Anti/patros), the father of CASSANDER, was an officer in high favour with Philip of Macedon (Just. 9.4), who after his victory at Chaeroneia, B. C. 338, selected him to conduct to Athens the bones of the Athenians who had fallen in the battle. (Just. l.c.; Plb. 5.10.) He joined Parmenion in the ineffectual advice to Alexander the Great not to set out on his Asiatic expedition till he had provided by marriage for the succession to the throne (Diod 17.16); and, on the king's departure, B. C. 334, he was left regent in Macedonia. (Diod. 17.17; Arr. Anab. i. p. 12a.) In B. C. 331 Antipater suppressed the Thracian rebellion under Memnon (Diod. 17.62), and also brought the war with the Spartans under Agis III. to a successful termination. (See p. 72b.) It is with reference to this event that we first find any intimation of Alexander's jealousy of Antipater--a feeling which was not improbably produced or fostered by the representations of Olympias, and perhaps by the known sentiments of Antipater himself. (Curt. 6.1.17, &c., 10.10.14; Plut. Ages. p. 604b., Alex. pp. 688, c., 705, f.; Perizon., ad Ael. V. H. 12.16; Thirlw. Gr. Hist. vol. vii. p. 89; but see Plut. Phoc. p. 749e.; Ael. VH 1.25.) Whether, however, from jealousy or from the necessity of guarding against the evil consequences of the dissensions between Olympias and Antipater, the latter was ordered to lead into Asia the fresh troops required by the king, B. C. 324, while Craterus, under whom the discharged veterans were sent home, was appointed to the regency in Macedonia. (Arr. vii. p. 155; Pseudo-Curt. 10.4.9, &c.; Just. 12.12.) The story which ascribes the death of Alexander, B. C. 323, to poison, and implicates Antipater and even Aristotle in the plot, is perhaps sufficiently refuted by its own intrinsic absurdity, and is set aside as false by Arrian and Plutarch. (Diod. 17.118; Paus. 8.18; Tac. Ann. 2.73; Curt. 10.10.14, &c.; Arr. vii. p. 167; Plut. Alex. ad fin. ; Liv. 8.3; Diod. 19.11; Athen. 10.434c.) On Alexander's death, the regency of Macedonia was assigned to Antipater, and he forthwith found himself engaged in a war with a strong confederacy of Grecian states with Athens at their head. At first he was defeated by Leosthenes, and besieged in Lamia, whence he even sent an embassy to Athens with an unsuccessful application for peace. (Diod. 18.3, 12, 18; Paus. 1.25; Just. 13.5 ; Plut. Phoc. p. 752b., Demosth. p. 858d.) The approach of Leonnatus obliged the Athenians to raise the siege, and the death of that general, who was defeated by Antiphilus (the successor of Leosthenes), and who was in league against the regent with Olympias, was far more an advantage than a loss to Antipater. (Diod. 18.14, 15; Just. 13.5; Plut. Eumt. p. 584d. e.) Being joined by Craterus, he defeated the confederates at Cranon, and succeeded in dissolving the league by the prudence and moderation with which he at first used his victory. Athens herself was obliged to purchase peace by the abolition of democracy and the admission of a garrison into Munychia, the latter of which conditions might surely have enabled Antipater to dispense with the destruction of Demosthenes and the chiefs of his party. (Diod. 18.16-18; Plut. Phoc. pp. 753, 754, Demosth. p. 858; Paus. 7.10; Thirlw. Gr. Hist. vol. vii. p. 187, note 1; Böckh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, 1.7, 4.3.) Returning now to Macedonia, he gave his daughter Phila in marriage to Craterus, with whom, at the end of the year B. C. 323, he invaded the Aetolians, the only party in the Lamian war who had not yet submitted. (Diod. 18.24.) But the intelligence brought him by Antigonus of the treachery of Perdiccas, and of his intention of putting away Nicaea, Antipater's daughter, to marry Cleopatra, compelled him to pass over to Asia ; where, leaving Craterus to act against Eumenes, he himself hastened after Perdiccas, who was marching towards Egypt against Ptolemy. (Diod. 18.23, 25, 29-33; Plut. Eum. pp. 585, 586; Just. 13.6.) On the murder of Perdiccas, the supreme regency devolved on Antipater, who, at Triparadeisus in Syria, successfully maintained his power against Eurydice, the queen. Marching into Lydia, he avoided a battle with Eumenes, and he on his side was dissuaded from attacking Antipater by Cleopatra, who wished to give the regent no cause of complaint. Towards the close of the year 321, he returned into Europe, taking with him the king and queen, and leaving Antigonus to prosecute the war with Eumenes. (Diod. 18.39, 40; Plut. Eum. p. 588a.) It was during the mortal illness of Antipater, B. C. 320, that Demades was sent to him from Athens to endeavour to obtain the removal of the garrison from Munychia, and was put to death for his treacherous correspondence with Perdiccas. Antipater left the regency to Polysperchon, to the exclusion of his own son Cassander. (Plut. Phoc. p. 755, Dem. ad fin. ; Arr. apud Phot. p. 70a.; Diod. 18.48.)

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