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Artaphernes

2. A son of the former. After the unsuccessful enterprise of Mardonius against Greece in B. C. 492, king Dareius placed Datis and his nephew Artaphernes at the head of the forces which were to chastise Athens and Eretria. Artaphernes, though superior in rank, seems to have been inferior in military skill to Datis, who was in reality the commander of the Persian army. The troops assembled in Cilicia, and here they were taken on board 600 ships. This fleet first sailed to Samos, and thence to the Cyclades. Naxos was taken and laid in ashes, and all the islands submitted to the Persians. In Euboea, Carystus and Eretria also fell into their hands. After this the Persian army landed at Marathon. Here the Persians were defeated in the memorable battle of Marathon, B. C. 490, whereupon Datis and Artaphernes sailed back to Asia. When Xerxes invaded Greece, B. C. 480, Artaphernes commanded the Lydians and Mysians. (Hdt. 6.94, 116, 7.10.2, 74; Aeschyl. Pers. 21.)

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