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Calvi'nus or Calvi'nus Maxnimus

2 CN. DOMITIUS CN. F. CALVINUS, surnamed Maxnimus, offered himself as a candidate for the curule aedileship in B. C. 304; but, although his father had been consul, Cn. Flavius, the famous scribe of Appins Clandius, was preierred to him Five years later, however, B. C. 299, he was elected curule aedile. (Liv. 10.9, where instead of the praenomen C. we ought to read Cn.) He was raised to the consulship in B. C. 283, together with P. Cornelius Dolabella. The name of Calvinus scarcely appears during the year of his consulship, though he must have been very actively engaged, for Rome was just then threatened by a coalition of all her enemies in Italy. Stimulated by the Lucanians and Bruttians, and more especially by the Tarentines, the Etruscans, Gauls, Umbrians, and Samnites took up arms against her. The Senones, allied with the Etruscans, attacked the town of Arretium; and as the consuls were probably engaged in other parts of Italy, the praetor L. Caecilius was sent out to the relief of the place ; but he lost a battle and his life near Arretium. His successor, M'. Curius, sent ambassadors to the Senones to effect an exchange of prisoners, but the ambassadors were murdered by the Senones. In order to avenge this breach of the law of nations, the consul P. Cornelius Dolabella marched through the country of the Sabines and Picentians into that of the Senones, conquered their army and ravaged their country, to secure which a Roman colony was established in it. The events which we have just described are not mentioned by all authorities in the same succession. According to Orosius (3.22; comp. Liv. Epit. 12), the murder of the Roman ambassadors preceded the campaign of L. Caecilius; whereas, according to Appian, the campaign of Dolabella followed immediately after the murder, and the object of the embassy was to remonstrate with the Senones for serving against the Romans, their allies. (Comp. Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, iii. p. 427, &c.) In what manner Calvinus was engaged during this time, is not known. When the Boians saw that the Senones were expelled from their country, they began to dread the same fate, joined the remaining Senones and the Etruscans, and marched against Rome. But in crossing the Tiber they met a Roman army, and in the ensuing battle most of the Etruscans were slain, and only a few of the Gauls escaped. Our accounts differ as to the Roman commanders in this battle ; for some represent Dolabella and others Calvinus as the victorious general, whereas it is most probable that both consuls gained laurels on that day. It was undoubtedly to this victory that Calvinus owed the surname of Maximus, and in B. C. 280 he was further honoured by being made dictator. On laying down this office in the same year, he was elected censor-the first instance of a plebeian being raised to that office. (Plin. Nat. 33.1 ; Plb. 2.19, 20; Liv. Epit. 13; Appian, Samnit. 6, Gull. 11; Flor. 1.13; Eutrop. 2.10; Dio Cass. Excerpt. Vat. p. 163, ed. Sturz; Fast. Cap.)

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