Anti'ochus Vii. or Anti'ochus Sidetes
), king of SYRIA, surnamed SIDETES (Σιδήτης
), from Side in Pamphylia, where he was brought up, (and not from a Syriac word signifying a hunter,) and on coins Euergetes (Εὐεργέτης
), was the younger son of Demetrius Soter, and obtained possession of the throne in B. C. 137, after conquering Tryphon, who had held the sovereignty since the murder of Antiochus VI.
He married Cleopatra, the wife of his elder brother Demetrius Nicator, who was a prisoner in the hand of the Parthians.
He carried on war against the Jews, and took Jerusalem after almost a year's siege, in B. C. 133.
He then granted them a peace on favourable terms, and next directed his arms against the Parthians.
At first he met with success, but was afterwards defeated by the Parthian king, and lost his life in the battle, after a reign of nine years. (B. C. 128.) His son Seleucus was taken prisoner in the same battle. Antiochus, like many of his predecessors, was passionately devoted to the pleasures of the table.
He had three sons and two daughters, the latter of whom both bore the name of Laodice. His sons were Antiochus, Seleucus, and Antiochus (Cyzicenus), the last of whom subsequently succeeded to the throne. (J. AJ 13.8
; 1 Maccab.
xv., &c.; Justin, 36.1
; Diod. xxxiv. Ecl.
1; Athen. 10.439
, xii. p. 540.)
The reverse of the annexed coin represents Athena holding a small figure of Victory in her right hand. (Eckhel, iii. p. 235, &c.)