The last Confederate surrender.
To write an impartial and unprejudiced account of exciting contemporary events has always been a difficult peculiar flavor of bitterness.
But slight sketches of minor incidents, by actors and eye-witnesses, may prove of service to the future writer, who undertakes the more ambitious and severe duty of historian.
The following memoir pour server has this object.
In the summer of 1864, after the close of the Red river campaign
, I was ordered to cross the Mississippi
, and report my arrival on the east bank by telegraph to Richmond
All the fortified posts on the river were held by the Federals
, and the intermediate portions possible, prevent, passage.
This delayed the transmission of the order above-mentioned until August, when I crossed at a point just above the mouth of the Red river
On a dark night, in a small canoe, with horses swimming alongside, I got over without attracting the attention of a gunboat, anchored a short distance below.
Woodville, Wilkinson county, Mississippi
, was the nearest place in telegraphic communication with Richmond
Here, in reply to a dispatch to Richmond
, I was directed to assume command of the Department of Alabama
, etc., with headquarters at Meridian, Mississippi
, and informed that President Davis
would, at an early day, meet me at Montgomery, Alabama
The military situation was as follows: Sherman
lying some distance to the southwest; Farragut
had forced the defenses of
, capturing Fort Morgan
, etc., and the Federals
, but had made no movements into the interior.
Major General Maury
commanded the Confederate forces garrisoning Mobile
and adjacent works, with Commodore Farrand
, Confederate Navy, in charge of several armed vessels.
Small bodies of troops were stationed at different points through the department, and Major General Forrest
, with his division of cavalry, was in the Northeast Mississippi
Directing this latter officer to move his command across the Tennessee river
, and use every effort to interrupt Sherman
's communications south of Nashville
, I proceeded to Mobile
to inspect the fortifications; thence to Montgomery
, to meet President Davis
The interview extended over many hours, and the military situation was freely discussed.
Our next meeting was at Fortress Monroe
, where, during his confinement, I obtained permission to visit him. The closing scenes of the great drama succeeded each other with startling rapidity.
marched, unopposed, to the sea. Hood
was driven from Nashville
across the Tennessee
, and asked to be relieved.
Assigned to this duty I met him near Tupelo
, North Mississippi
, and witnessed the melancholy spectacle presented by a retreating army.
Guns, small-arms and accoutrements lost, men without shoes or blankets, and this in a winter of unusual severity for that latitude.
Making every effort to re-equip this force, I suggested to General Lee
, then commanding all the armies of the Confederacy
, that it should be moved to the Carolinas, to interpose between Sherman
's advance and his (Lee
's) lines of supply, and, in the last necessity, of retreat.
The suggestion was adopted, and this force so moved.
, with a well-appointed and ably-led command of Federal cavalry, moved rapidly through North Alabama
, seized Selma
, and, turning east to Montgomery
, continued into Georgia
, commanding the Union
armies in the Southwest
, advanced up the eastern shore of Mobile bay
and invested Spanish Fort
, important Confederate works in that quarter.
After repulsing an assault, General Maury
, in accordance with instructions, withdrew his garrisons, in the night, to Mobile
, and then evacuated the city, falling back to Meridian
, on the line of the Mobile and Ohio Railway. General Forrest
was drawn in to the same point, and the little army, less than eight thousand of all arms, held in readiness to discharge such duties as the waning fortunes of the “cause” and the honor of its arms might demand.
Intelligence of Lee
's surrender reached us. Staff officers from Johnston
came across the country to inform Canby
and myself of their “convention.”
Whereupon an interview was arranged between us to determine a course of action, and a place selected ten miles north of Mobile
, near the railway.
Accompanied by a staff officer, Colonel William M. Levy
(now a member of Congress from Louisiana
), and making use of a “hand car,” I reached the appointed spot, and found General Canby
with a large escort, and many staff and other officers.
Among these I recognized some old friends, notably General Canby
himself and Admiral James Palmer
All extended cordial greetings.
A few moments of private conversation with Canby
led to the establishment of a truce, to await further intelligence from the North
Forty-eight hours notice was to be given by the party desiring to terminate the truce.
We then joined the throng of officers, and although every one present felt a deep conviction that the last hour of the sad struggle approached, no allusion was made to it. Subjects awakening memories of the past, when all were sons of a loved, united country, were, as by the natural selection of good breeding, chosen.
A bountiful luncheon was soon spread, and I was invited to partake of patis, champagne-frappe, and other “delights,” which, to me, had long been as lost arts.
As we took our seats at the table, a military band in attendance commenced playing “Hail Columbia.”
Excusing himself, General Canby
walked to the door.
The music ceased for a moment, and then the strain of “Dixie” was heard.
Old Froissart records no gentler act of “courtesie.”
Warmly thanking General Canby
for his delicate consideration, I asked for “Hail Columbia,” and proposed we should unite in the hope that our Columbia
would soon be, once more, a happy land.
This and other kindred sentiments were duly honored in “frappe,” and, after much pleasant intercourse, the party separated.
The succeeding hours were filled with a grave responsibility, which could not be evaded or shared.
Circumstances had appointed me to watch the dying agonies of a cause that had fixed the attention of the world.
To my camp, as the last refuge in the storm, cane many members of the Confederate Congress.
These gentlemen were urged to go at once to their respective homes, and, by precept and example, teach the people to submit to the inevitable, obey the laws, and resume the peaceful occupations on which society depends.
This advice was followed, and with excellent effect on public tranquility.
dispatched that his government disavowed the Johnston-Sherman
convention, and it would be his duty to resume hostilities.
Almost at the same instant came the news of Johnston
There was no room for hesitancy.
Folly and madness combined would not have justified an attempt to prolong a hopeless contest.
was informed that I desired to meet him for the purpose of negotiating a surrender
of my forces, and that Commodore Farrand
, commanding the armed vessels in the Alabama river
, desired to meet Rear Admiral Thatcher
for a similar purpose.
Citronville, some forty miles north of Mobile
, was the appointed place; and there, in the early days of May, 1865, the great war virtually ended.
After this, no hostile gun was fired, and the authority of the United States
was supreme in the land.
Conditions of surrender were speedily determined, and of a character to soothe the pride of the vanquished-officers to retain side-arms, troops to turn in arms and equipments to their own ordnance officers, so of the quartermaster and commissary stores; the Confederate
cotton agent for Alabama
to settle his accounts with the Treasury Agent
of the United States
; muster-rolls to be prepared, etc.; transportation to be provided for the men. All this under my control and supervision.
Here a curious incident may be mentioned.
At an early period of the war, when Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston
retired to the south of the Tennessee river
, Isham G. Harris
, accompanied him, taking, at the same time, the coin from the vaults of the State Bank of Tennessee
, at Nashville
This coin, in the immediate charge of a bonded officer of the bank, had occasioned much solicitude to the Governor
in his many wanderings.
He appealed to me to assist in the restoration of the coin to the bank.
At my request, General Canby
detailed an officer and escort, and the money reached the bank intact.
The condition of the people of Alabama
was at this time deplorable.
The waste of war had stripped large areas of the necessaries of life.
In view of this, I suggested to General Canby
that his troops, sent to the interior, should be limited to the number required for the preservation of order, and be stationed at points where supplies were more abundant.
That trade would soon be established between soldiers and people-furnishing the latter with currency, of which they were destitute-and friendly relations promoted.
These suggestions were adopted, and a day or two thereafter, at Meridian
, a note was received from General Canby
, inclosing copies of orders to Generals Granger
, commanding army corps, by which it appeared these officers were directed to call on me for, and conform to, advice relative to movements of their troops.
Strange, indeed, must such confidence appear to statesmen of the “bloody-shirt” persuasion.
In due time, Federal staff-officers reached my camp.
The men were paroled and sent home.
Public property was turned over and receipted for, and this as orderly and quietly as in time of peace between officers of the same service.
What years of discord, bitterness, injustice and loss would not our country have been spared, had the wounds of war healed “by first intention” under the tender ministrations of the hands that fought the battles?
But the task was allotted to ambitious partisans, most of whom had not heard the sound of a gun. As of old, the Lion
and the Bear
fight openly and sturdily — the stealthy Fox
carries off the prize.