Chapter 45: battle of Winchester.
At light on the morning of the 19th, our cavalry pickets, at the crossing of the Opequon
on the Berryville
road, were driven in, and information having been sent me of that fact, I immediately ordered all the troops at Stephenson
's depot to be in readiness to move, directions being given for Gordon
, who had arrived from Bunker Hill
, to move at once, but by some mistake on the part of my staff officer, the latter order was not delivered to General Breckenridge
I rode at once to Ramseur
's position, and found his troops in line across the Berryville
road skirmishing with the enemy.
Before reaching this point, I had ascertained that Gordon
was not moving and sent back for him, and now discovering that the enemy's advance was a real one and in heavy force, I sent orders for Breckenridge
to move up as rapidly as possible.
The position occupied by Ramseur
was about one mile and a half out from Winchester
, on an elevated plateau between Abraham's Creek
and Red Bud Run. Abraham's Creek
crosses the Valley Pike
one mile south of Winchester
, and then crosses the Front Royal
road about the same distance southeast of the town, and running eastwardly, on the southern side of the Berryville
road, crosses that road a short distance before it empties into the Opequon
Red Bud Run crosses the Martinsburg
road about a mile and a half north of Winchester
and runs eastwardly, on the northern side of the Berryville
road, to the Opequon
was therefore in the obtuse angle formed by the Martinsburg
and Front Royal roads. In front of and to the right of him, for some distance, the country was open.
runs through a deep valley, and beyond it, on the right, is high open ground, at the intersection of the Front Royal
's left the country sloped off to the Red Bud
, and there were some patches of woods which afforded cover for troops.
To the north of the Red Bud
, the country is very open, affording facilities for any kind of troops.
Towards the Opequon
, on the front, the Berryville
road runs through a ravine with hills and woods on each side, which enabled the enemy to move his troops under cover, and mask them out of range of artillery.
Nelson's artillery was posted on Ramseur
's line, covering the approaches as far as practicable, and Lomax
's cavalry and part of Johnson
's was on the right, watching the valley of Abraham's Creek
, and the Front Royal
road beyond, while Fitz. Lee
was on the left, across the Red Bud
, with his cavalry and a battery of horse artillery; and a detachment of Johnson
's cavalry watched the interval between Ramseur
's left and the Red Bud
. These troops held the enemy's main force in check until Gordon
's and Rodes
' divisions arrived from Stephenson
's division arrived first, a little after ten o'clock A. M., and was placed under cover in a rear of a piece of woods behind the interval between Ramseur
's line and the Red Bud
, the detachment of Johnson
's cavalry having been removed to the right.
Knowing that it would not do for us to await the shock of the enemy's attack, Gordon
was directed to examine the ground on the left, with a view to attacking a force of the enemy which had taken position in a piece of wood in front of him, and while he was so engaged, Rodes
arrived with three of his brigades, and was directed to form on Gordon
's right in rear of another piece of woods.
While this movement was executed, we discovered very heavy columns of the enemy, which had been massed under cover between the Red Bud
and the Berryville
road, moving to attack Ramseur
on his left flank, while another force pressed him in front.
It was a moment of imminent and thrilling danger, as it was impossible for Ramseur
which numbered only about 1,700 muskets, to withstand the immense force advancing against it.
The only chance for us was to hurl Rodes
upon the flank of the advancing columns, and they were ordered forward at once to the attack.
They advanced in most gallant style through the woods into the open ground, and attacked with great vigor, while Nelson
's battery on the right, and Braxton
's on the left, opened a destructive fire.
' brigade of Gordon
's division, which was on the extreme left of our infantry, received a check from a column of the enemy, and was forced back through the woods from behind which it had advanced, the enemy following to the very rear of the woods, and to within musket range of seven pieces of Braxton
's artillery which were without support.
This caused a pause in our advance and the position was most critical, for it was apparent that unless this force was driven back the day was lost.
's guns, in which now was our only hope, resolutely stood their ground, and under the personal superintendence of Lieutenant Colonel Braxton
and Colonel T. H. Carter
, my then Chief of Artillery
, opened with canister on the enemy.
This fire was so rapid and well directed that the enemy staggered, halted, and commenced falling back, leaving a battle flag on the ground, whose bearer was cut down by a canister shot.
Just then, Battle
's brigade of Rodes
' division, which had arrived and been formed in line for the purpose of advancing to the support of the rest of the division, moved forward and swept through the woods, driving the enemy before it, while Evans
' brigade was rallied and brought back to the charge.
Our advance, which had been suspended for a moment, was resumed, and the enemy's attacking columns were thrown into great confusion and driven from the field.
This attacking force of the enemy proved to be the 6th and 19th corps, and it was a grand sight to see this immense body hurled back in utter disorder before my two divisions, numbering a very little over 5,000 muskets.
's division had received the shock of the enemy's attack, and been forced back a little, but soon recovered itself.
, on the right, had held the enemy's cavalry in check, and, with a part of his force, had made a gallant charge against a body of infantry, when Ramseur
's line was being forced back, thus aiding the latter in recovering from the momentary disorder.
on the left, from across the Red Bud
, had poured a galling fire into the enemy's columns with his sharpshooters and horse artillery, while Nelson
's and Braxton
's battalions had performed wonders.
This affair occurred about 11 A. M., and a splendid victory had been gained.
The ground in front was strewn with the enemy's dead and wounded, and some prisoners had been taken.
But on our side, Major General Rodes
had been killed, in the very moment of triumph, while conducting the attack of his division with great gallantry and skill, and this was a heavy blow to me. Brigadier General Godwin
's division had been killed, and Brigadier General York
's division had lost an arm. Other brave men and officers had fallen, and we could illy bear the loss of any of them.
Had I then had a fresh body of troops to push our victory, the day would have been ours, but in this action, in the early part of the day, I had present only about 7,000 muskets, about 2,000 cavalry and two battalions of artillery with about 30 guns; and they had all been engaged.
's division and King
's artillery had not arrived, and Imboden
's cavalry under Colonel Smith
, and McCausland
's under Colonel Ferguson
, were watching the enemy's cavalry on the right, on the Martinsburg
road and the Opequon
The enemy had a fresh corps which had not been engaged, and there remained his heavy force of cavalry.
Our lines were now formed across from Abraham's Creek
to Red Bud and were very attenuated.
The enemy was still to be seen in front in formidable force, and away to our right, across Abraham's Creek
, at the junction of the Front Royal
he had massed a division of cavalry with some artillery, overlapping us at least a mile, while the country was open between this force and the Valley Pike
and Cedar Creek Pike back of the latter; which roads furnished my only means of retreat in the event of disaster.
My line did not reach the Front Royal
road on the right or the Martinsburg
road on the left.
When the order was sent for the troops to move from Stephenson
's depot, General Breckenridge
had moved to the front, with Wharton
's division and King
's artillery, to meet a cavalry force, which had driven our pickets from the Opequon
on the Charlestown
road, and that division had become heavily engaged with the enemy, and sustained and repulsed several determined charges of his cavalry, while his own flanks were in great danger from the enemy's main force on the right, and a column of his cavalry moving up the Martinsburg
road on the left.
After much difficulty, and some hard fighting, General Breckenridge
succeeded in extricating his force, and moving up the Martinsburg
road to join me, but he did not reach the field until about two o'clock in the afternoon.
In the meantime there had been heavy skirmishing along the line, and the reports from the front were that the enemy was massing for another attack, but it was impossible to tell where it would fall.
As the danger from the enemy's cavalry on the right was very great and Lomax
's force very weak, Wickham
's brigade of Fitz. Lee
's cavalry had been sent from the left to Lomax
's division arrived, Patton
's brigade of that division was left to aid Fitz. Lee
in guarding the Martinsburg
road, against the force of cavalry which was advancing on that road watched by Lomax
's two small brigades; and the rest of the division in the centre, in order to be moved to any point that might be attacked.
Late in the afternoon two divisions of the enemy's cavalry drove in the small force which had been watching it on the Martinsburg
road, and Crook
which had not been engaged, advanced at the same time on that flank, on the north side of Red Bud, and, before this overwhelming force, Patton
's brigade of infantry and Payne
's brigade of cavalry under Fitz. Lee
were forced back.
A considerable force of the enemy's cavalry then swept along the Martinsburg
road to the very skirts of Winchester
, thus getting in the rear of our left flank.
's two other brigades were moved in double quick time to the left and rear, and making a gallant charge on the enemy's cavalry, with the aid of King
's artillery, and some of Braxton
's guns which were turned to the rear, succeeded in driving it back.
The division was then thrown into line by General Breckenridge
, in rear of our left and at right angles with the Martinsburg
road, and another charge of the enemy's cavalry was handsomely repulsed.
But many of the men on our front line, hearing the fire in the rear, and thinking they were flanked and about to be cut off, commenced falling back, thus producing great confusion.
At the same time Crook
advanced against our left, and Gordon
' brigade into line to meet him, but the disorder in the front line became so great that, after an obstinate resistance, that brigade was compelled to retire also.
The whole front line had now given way, but a large portion of the men were rallied and formed behind an indifferent line of breastworks, which had been made just outside of Winchester
during the first year of the war, and, with the aid of the artillery which was brought back to this position, the progress of the enemy's infantry was arrested.
's division maintained its organization on the left, and Ramseur
fell back in good order on the right.
's brigade of cavalry had been brought from the right, and was in position on Fort Hill
just outside of Winchester
on the west.
Just after the advance of the enemy's infantry was checked by our artillery, it was reported to me that the enemy had got around our right flank, and as I knew this was practicable
and was expecting such a movement from the cavalry on the Front Royal
road, I gave the order to retire, but instantly discovering that the supposed force of the enemy was Ramseur
's division, which had merely moved back to keep in line with the other troops, I gave the order for the latter to return to the works before they had moved twenty paces.
This order was obeyed by Wharton
's division, but not so well by the others.
The enemy's cavalry force, however, was too large for us, and having the advantage of open ground, it again succeeded in getting around our left, producing great confusion, for which there was no remedy.
Nothing now was left for us but to retire through Winchester
, and Ramseur
's division, which maintained its organization, was moved on the east of the town to the south side of it, and put in position, forming a basis for a new line, while the other troops moved back through the town.
's brigade, with some pieces of horse artillery on Fort Hill
, covered this movement and checked the pursuit of the enemy's cavalry.
When the new line was formed, the enemy's advance was checked until nightfall, and we then retired to Newtown
without serious molestation.
had held the enemy's cavalry on the Front Royal
road in check, and a feeble attempt at pursuit was repulsed by Ramseur
As soon as our reverse began, orders had been sent for the removal of the trains, stores and sick and wounded in the hospitals to Fisher's Hill
over the Cedar Creek Pike
and the Back Road
This was done with safety, and all the wounded, except such as were not in a condition to be moved, and those which had not been brought from the field, were carried to the rear.
This battle, beginning with the skirmishing in Ramseur
's front, had lasted from daylight till dark, and, at the close of it, we had been forced back two miles, after having repulsed the enemy's first attack with great slaughter to him and subsequently contested every inch of ground with unsurpassed obstinacy.
the victory, and would have had it, but for the enemy's immense superiority in cavalry, which alone gave it to him.
Three pieces of King
's artillery, from which the horses were shot, and which, therefore, could not be brought off, were lost, but the enemy claimed five, and if he captured that number, two were lost by the cavalry and not reported to me. My loss in killed, wounded and prisoners was severe for the size of my force, but it was only a fraction of that claimed by the enemy.
Owing to its obedience to orders in returning to the works, the heaviest loss of prisoners was in Wharton
Colonel G. W. Patton
, commanding a brigade, was mortally wounded and fell into the hands of the enemy; Major General Fitz. Lee
was also severely wounded.
In the death of Major General Rodes
, I had to regret the loss, not only of a most accomplished, skilful and gallant officer, upon whom I placed great reliance, but also of a personal friend, whose counsels had been of great service to me in the trying circumstances with which I had found myself surrounded.
He fell at his post, doing a soldier's and patriot's duty to his country, and his memory will long be cherished by his comrades.
and Colonel Patton
were both most gallant and efficient officers, and their loss was deeply felt, as was that of all the brave officers and men who fell in this battle.
The enemy's loss in killed and wounded was very heavy, and some prisoners fell into our hands.
A skilful and energetic commander of the enemy's forces would have crushed Ramseur
before any assistance could have reached him, and thus ensured the destruction of my whole force; and later in the day, when the battle had turned against us, with the immense superiority in cavalry which Sheridan
had, and the advantage of the open country, would have destroyed my whole force and captured everything I had. As it was, considering the immense disparity in numbers and equipment, the enemy had very little to boast of. I had lost a few pieces of
artillery and some very valuable officers and men, but the main part of my force and all my trains had been saved, and the enemy's loss in killed and wounded was far greater than mine.
When I look back to this battle, I can but attribute my escape from utter annihilation to the incapacity of my opponent.1