No. 130. report of Col. Charles M. Lum, Tenth Michigan Infantry, of operations May 16-August 27.
Hdqrs. Tenth regiment Michigan Vet. Infantry, Near Atlanta, Ga., August 8, 1864.The Tenth Regiment Michigan Veteran Infantry reached Resaca, Ga., on the 16th day of May, 1864, after having marched steadily for twenty days previous, and joined the First Brigade, Second Di vision, Fourteenth Army Corps, in the earlypart of the day, just as our  division was starting for Rome, Ga., and, although the regiment had already marched five miles with heavy knapsacks, they kept pace readily with the column, which moved rapidly through Snake Creek Gap and toward Rome, a distance of fifteen miles, making twenty miles for the Tenth Michigan. Halted at 9 p.m. May 17, left camp at 6.30 a. m. and marched toward Rome, Ga. During the engagement which occurred near Rome, when the head of the column struck the rebel army defending the town, we were held in reserve, as our brigade was in rear of the column in the order of march. At 8.30 p. m. moved to the right and front one and a half miles, and bivouacked until morning. May 18, moved out just after daybreak in a dense fog, which rendered it impossible to see but a few rods, and formed in line of battle in rear of the picket-line, threw out skirmishers, and moved forward, obliquing to the right until we came in: sight of rebel earth-works on a hill in a strong position. We soon ascertained that these were deserted, and we moved to the top of the hill, where the enemy began shelling our line, while our skirmishers advanced to the Coosa River and found the enemy's skirmishers on the opposite side. The regiment moved, under cover of a hill, in a piece of woods, while our battery came up on the hill and silenced the enemy. At night our regiment went on picket, where we remained until 2.30 p. m. of May 20, hearing many exciting rumors of Forrest and Wheeler being about to attack our lines, which all proved false. May 20, at 2.30 p. m., being relieved from two days picketing, made camp near Coosa River, being one mile from Rome, which lay on the opposite bank. May 22, at 2.30 p. m. left camp and moved across the Oostenaula River on pontoon bridge into Rome and then across the Etowah River on pontoon-boats, and took position on a high, steep ridge on the south bank of the Coosa River. Distance marched, three miles. May 23, moved camp at 9 a. m. nearly a mile farther from town and made camp in a pine grove, and drew rations of hard bread, which was welcome, for we had been subsisting for several days on corn and oat-meal from the stores captured in Rome, which change of diet had made many of us sick. Received orders to be ready to march at 5 a. m. to-morrow morning. May 24, left camp at 5 a. m. and marched out on the Atlanta road, moving rapidly with but little rest until 12.15 p. m., when we halted in a forest of the long-leaved pine, where there was no water, except a well about 100 rods from the road, which was thronged by thousands of soldiers from all parts of the column; nor had we found any water, save a few stagnant pools, for two or three miles back. Got dinner as best we could. At 3 p. m. moved on and still found no water until we reached Peak's Spring, some five miles from where we halted at noon. Here was water enough for the whole army; bivouacked for the night. A heavy thunder-shower came up just after dark, drenching us to the skin. May 25, left camp at 7.30 a. m. and marched slowly toward Dallas, Ga. Halted at 11.30 a. m. to get dinner; again in a forest of long-leaved pine. Water was very scarce for several miles in the morning. Moved on at 2 p. m. over a very hilly country, and at 8 p. m. encamped in a field of rye while the rain was falling in torrents and it was dark as blackest night; marched fifteen miles. It is reported that we are within five miles of Dallas. May 26, left camp at 7 a. m. and marched, as we supposed, toward Dallas for two and a half miles over all the moderate sized big hills that could be crowded into that distance, and halted on the side of one of them until 10.30 a. m., and countermarched,  or retraced our steps, and, passing by our camp of last night, marched on another road to Dallas, Ga., which we reached at 2 p. m., and, passing through, formed in line of battle one-half mile beyond and furnished pickets for our brigade front. The regiment lay on arms in line of battle; distance marched, eleven miles. May 27. at 6.30 a. m. changed our position and formed a new line of battle one-quarter of a mile to right and front of the last, and again at 9 a. m. moved one-quarter mile nearlyjto the right, and lay in line of battle all day. May 28, we have skirmishers out again in front and the skirmish fire is very brisk; regiment still remains in line of battle. May 29, in line of battle near Dallas, Ga., until just after dark, when we received orders to and moved out to the right and took position, supporting a battery, where we lay all night, while the rebels charged four times on our lines and were repulsed each time. Our men were very cool, many of them resting amid the fiercest fighting, unless ordered to fall in, when every man was in his place in an instant; lay in line of battle all night. May 30, at daybreak, moved back to our line of yesterday, and lay quietly in line all day. May 31, in line of battle near Dallas, Ga. Nothing of note occurred save that the enemy threw a few shells near our position, some bursting among us, but doing no harm. June 1, left our position at 6.30 a. m. and moved out toward the main road, where we were delayed until 9 a. m. by the right of the army moving to the left, when we moved toward the left of the army, and at 12 m. halted and remained until 3.30 p. m., and moved on to the rear of the Twenty-third Army Corps, and formed line of battle on a ridge three-quarters of a mile in rear of front lines, and supposed we were to remain until morning, but at 9 p. m. were ordered to the works, where we relieved a part of the Twenty-third Army Corps. Distance marched, ten miles. Our skirmishers covered the withdrawing of our brigade in the morning without loss. June 2 and 3, lay in works eight miles from Dallas, Ga. Lost 1 man by sharpshooting of the enemy. June 4, were relieved at 4.30 a. m., and marched to the ridge on which we halted the evening of June 1, and prepared breakfast. At 10 a. m. moved toward the left one mile and a half, and made camp on Stoneman's Hill, where we remained until June 6. June 6, left camp at 8 a. m. and moved slowly with the column in pursuit of the enemy. At 4.30 p. m. formed line of battle, and received orders to throw up breast-works and put out pickets in our front. Threw up works and remained in this position, doing picket duty until June 10. Distance marched on the 6th, eight miles. Our position here is near Acworth, Ga. June 10, left camp at 6.20 a. m. and marched nearly south; were in rear and had to move slowly. A heavy thunder shower came up at noon, which drenched us thoroughly, and as we had but fairly got started until this was done (on account of trains), we had to march over the worst roads we had yet seen, and some of the time very rapidly. Halted at 3.30 p. m.; had made only about four miles and a half, but were more exhausted than if we had made fifteen miles on good roads. June 11, left camp at 9.30 a. m.; marched two miles and halted and put up camp to remain over night, as we supposed, but just as tents were fairly pitched an order came to fall in, and we moved out in double column, halting every few rods, and it was dark before the movement was completed, when we halted, and in the midst of a rain-storm pitched camp only a half mile from that of noon. Distance marched, three miles. Lay here until June 14.  June 14, left camp at 9.10 a. m. and moved out in light order toward the front. Halted and got dinner about noon, and soon after skirmishers were detailed from our regiment to advance our lines, as this was the object of this movement. The skirmishers fol ght their way steadily forward, pressing back the rebel lines a long distance, and doing everything asked of them. In this operation we lost lightly, considering the ground taken, the whole loss being 1 killed and 3 wounded. Just before night sent back and brought up knapsacks and camp equipage, and pitched camp in a piece of woods in rear of front line, near Big Shanty Station. Lay here until the 18th. June 18, at 4 p. m. moved a half mile to the front toward Kenesaw Mountain and threw up earth-works. June 19, left our works at 7.50 a. m. and marched toward Kenesaw; halted at 9.30 a. m. and formed line of battle in front of rebel earth-works, where we remained until 11 a. m., when we moved on in a heavy rain-storm and formed in close column by division on a ridge three-quarters of a mile from Kenesaw. Just before night we moved slowly forward and formed in line of battle about forty rods from the foot of the mountain, and then at dark went on picket on the side of the mountain. The picket-firing here was very brisk and fatal, as the enemy were so much elevated above us. Distance marched, four miles. June 20, relieved from picket at dusk and camped at the foot of the mountain with the brigade. Here we remained until June 26. June 23, the enemy shelled our camp vigorously, wounding a very few of our men. June 25, the regiment is again on picket on the side of the mountain in the same position of June 20. June 26, at midnight of the 25th, we were relieved by Twelfth Indiana Infantry, Fifteenth Army Corps, and we moved one mile and three-quarters to the rear, and then to the right some three miles, and took position a half mile in rear of lines in column by division, and pitched tents and remained all day. This was a very hard march for us, for we had been on picket for thirty hours, and the march was so slow and torturing that many were exhausted with the fatigue of wearing knapsacks so many hours. Distance marched, five miles. June 27, at 6 a. m. the regiment moved to the front and took position in the works. While moving over an open field to reach the works we were much exposed to the fire of the enemy, whose works were in plain sight, and Captain Cook, of Company E, was mortally wounded. It was to-day that the charge was made by the Second and Third Brigades, and many of our men had to be restrained by their officers to keep them from joining the charging force. We remained here until July 3. Nothing of note occurred after the charge of the 27th until the 29th, when the truce was given the rebels to bury the dead, and a few times the enemy shelled our camp, compelling us to keep close to our works. We lost a few men by sharpshooting of the rebels. July 3, left camp at 7 a. m. and started in pursuit of the enemy, who had evacuated their works the night previous; advanced seven miles, and threw up breast-works. July 4, completed the works which we had hardly completed the evening before and remained until 5 p. m., when we advanced one-half mile and threw up another line of works, and sent out a detail of men to work as pioneers, who built five bridges, three across one creek on as many roads, and two more on another stream in front of the picket-line. July 5, moved at daylight in pursuit of the enemy. Our regiment was in advance and consequently had to keep a skirmish line in advance. We captured  a part of the rebel picket-line and picked up stragglers, after crossing their works, to the number of 50 prisoners. Advanced six miles, and halted at sunset and remained until morning. July 6, threw up earth-works, and had just got them nicely completed, when we were relieved by troops from the Twentieth Army Corps at 4 p. m., and we moved one-quarter of a mile to the left and rear and bivouacked for the night. July 7, moved one-quarter of a mile to the left and rear, and pitched our camp in a pleasant grove of young pine trees. Here we remained doing picket duty until the 17th of July. July 9, five companies went on picket in front of the rebel works. July 10, at 2.30 a. m. our watchful sentinels, judging from the slackened fire of the enemy's pickets, and fr3m other circumstances, concluded that the rebels were gone, and sending a reconnoitering party forward, our pickets advanced and found that the enemy had just left. Our pickets advanced long before those on either our right or left, and deploying skirmished to the river, where we found the railroad bridge nearly destroyed by fire, and as (lay broke we could see long columns of rebel troops moving on the opposite bank. We were exposed to a raking fire from their pickets just across the river, and falling back a few yards, a portion of our pickets remained on duty until 9 p. m. with the reserve in a ravine safe from the enemy's fire, while the posts gave them shot for shot. The remainder of our picket force returned to camp, where they arrived at 12 m. much exhausted; picked up 23 deserters. July 17, left camp at 5 a. m., and marched toward the left of our lines, halting quite often, and at 10.30 a. m., halted in column by division one-half mile distant from the Chattahoochee River, and three and a half miles from camp. At 11.30 a. m. moved toward the river, crossing on pontoon bridge at 12 m. Halted at about a half mile from the river in column by division as support for skirmishers. During a slight panic, occasioned by a part of our skirmish line being pressed back, when a part of one regiment broke and ran to the rear, our regiment stood steady, grasping their arms ready in an instant for anything which might come. Near night moved about one and a half miles from the river and threw up works. July 18, moved at 3 p. m. to the front, through an unbroken forest, passing by a circuitous route rapidly over a rough country some two and a half miles, forming twice in line of battle. At the last place threw up breast-works and pitched camp. July 19, laid at our works until 2.45 p. m., when we moved toward the right, nearly to the picketlines of the enemy, and halted in column by division and waited for further orders: These came a little later in the p. m., when we moved carefully to a concealed position near the rebel lines, which we found to be strong earth-works on a very steep bluff, between which and our position, a creek, known as Peach Tree Creek, ran. Threw out a detail of thirty men as sharpshooters to examine the position of the enemy, and ascertain as nearly as possible the nature of the ground over which we were to pass, as we expected to charge the enemy's works. Our sharpshooters advanced boldly to within a short distance of the bluff, and found it to be impracticable to charge the works, on account of the depth and rapidity of the creek and the steepness of the bluff. Several of our sharpshooters were hit by the rebels, who kept up a very hot fire, and 1 was killed before dark. After dusk three companies were sent out to advance the picket-lines, and they, together with the sharpshooters, threw up rifle-pits. One company took position in a grist-mill (which our sharpshooters had  reached before dark), only a few rods from the rebel works. When morning broke, a hot fire was opened on both sides and in our front; not a Johnnie was safe in showing a hand above his works; but from a flanking position they raked the ground, so that it was not safe for one of our men to leave his pit. Several of our men were wounded, and some killed, and we killed many of them, as next day's reconnaissance proved. Just before sundown is was found that the rebels were trying to leave, and Major Burnett, who had command of the pickets, lost not a moment in ascertaining the real state of affairs, and a volunteer “forlorn hope” proceeded under his direction to examine the works by moving to a point where they could look into them. It was found that they were nearly all gone, and immediately throwing forward the picket force, Major Burnett pursued them some distance, when our regiment was relieved from duty, and the picket force fell back to the works which the regiment had thrown up during the day. Our whole loss was 20 killed and wounded, among whom were Lieutenant Teal, killed, and Lieutenant Welling, wounded. July 21, made a reconnaissance, crossing Peach Tree Creek by fording, and were on skirmish line all day, pressing the enemy back toward Atlanta some two and a half miles, and at night returned to the works we threw up on the 18th of July. July 22, had the promise of lying still to-day, but at 10.30 a. m. an order came to be ready to move immediately, with information that Atlanta was in the possession of our army. Moved to within three and a half miles (west) of Atlanta, and bivouacked in a piece of woods. July 23, moved one half mile and threw up breast-works on the right flank of our lines. Here we remained until the 27th. July 27, received orders to be ready to move in light order at 6 a. m. Movement delayed until 1.15 p. m., when we moved out and assisted in advancing our lines to the right and front, and returned to camp at dusk. July 28, moved out of camp at 9 a. m. with everything, and made a reconnaissance with our division, marching nearly to Sandtown, and then returning nearly to our camp, passing one mile to the right, halted at midnight, after one of the hardest day and night marches we ever made. Scarcely were the arms stacked before every man was asleep, never stopping to taste supper. July 29, lay in the hot sun (a part of the time under arms, on account of tardiness of moving out after we were ordered to fall in) until noon. Moved out rapidly to the right and front of our works, where our regiment was thrown out as skirmishers, and we pressed the rebel skirmish line back one and a half miles, capturing several arms and some clothing, which they were obliged to abandon on account of the rapidity of our movements. Regiment was kept on picket until morning. July 30, after coming off picket, we were just ready to pitch camp, when we were ordered to be ready to move, and at noon moved to the right and front, and threw up breast-works. July 31, moved out toward the Macon railroad nearly a mile, and acted as support while a movement was made toward the railroad by our skirmish line. Returned to camp at dusk. August 1, 2, and 3, lay in camp. August 4, moved out in light order to the same point as on the 31st ultimo, and advancing a little beyond, remained until dark. Our regiment was then put on the skirmish line, and advanced over an exceedingly rough, hilly, and woody country, driving the enemy back about one mile. At LI p. m. halted and established picket-line as best we could, for it was very dark. The enemy was stubborn, and it was hot work a part  of the time. August 5, still on skirmish line. Advanced, and drove the rebels from a strong position, pressing them back one-half mile. August 6, sent back to camp and brought up knapsacks and camp equipage, and were immediately ordered out, and moved into the breast-works of the Sixtieth Illinois Infantry (who were on picket), while a demonstration was made against the rebel lines. Just before sundown sent a detail to put up works on our own lines, and they began and partly completed them in a soaking rain. August 7, completed works. Rebels shelled us some, as they had for the past three days a good share of the time. A little after noon were moved out in great haste, in light order, and assisted in pressing back the enemy and taking two lines of their works; threw up earth-works; pitched camp. August 8, a little after noon moved out in light order to the right and rear of our lines, and threw up works on the right flank of our lines, and remained, without tents, until August 11. August 11, moved into camp from our position two miles out on the right flank. August 12, moved at daylight one-half mile to the right, and relieved a part of the Twenty-third Army Corps, and pitched camp, with a battery between the right and left wings of our regiment. Here we remained until the 19th, doing picket duty, and we had to be very vigilant, for ,he picket-line was only a few rods in front of the works. August 19, marched two miles to right and rear, and halted some time in close column by division ; then moved back toward camp one-half mile and changed direction, moving to front, and, having reached the right of our lines, remained in close column by division until nearly sundown, as support for Twenty-third Army Corps, who were advancing the lines; returned to camp after dark; marched seven and a half miles. August 20, moved out to position of yesterday (leaving camp long before day) and took breakfast, then moved four miles to the right and front, assisting to advance the lines. At 1.45 p. m. formed line of battle near the Montgomery railroad, and threw up temporary breastworks, in a driving rain; put out pickets in our front, and remained until 2.20 p. m., when we moved back to camp, arriving a little before dark, having marched fifteen miles; were very much exhausted. August 21, right wing moved to the left, and took the place of the battery, which had moved out. Until the 27th remained quietly in camp, doing picket duty in our front. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Charles M. Lum, Colonel Tenth Regiment Michigan Veteran Infantry. Capt. T. Wiseman
, Asst. Adjt. Gen., 1st Brig., 2d Div., 14th Army Corps.
, Asst. Adjt. Gen., 1st Brig., 2d Div., 14th Army Corps.