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Chapter I

  • Organizing scouts
  • -- Miss Rebecca Wright -- important information -- Decides to move on Newtown -- meeting General Grant -- organization of the Union Army -- opening of the battle of the Opequon -- death of General Russell -- a turning movement -- a successful cavalry charge -- victory -- three loyal girls -- appointed a Brigadier -- General in the regular Army -- remarks on the battle.

While occupying the ground between Clifton and Berryville, referred to in the last chapter of the preceding volume, I felt the need of an efficient body of scouts to collect information regarding the enemy, for the defective intelligence-establishment with which I started out from Harper's Ferry early in August had not proved satisfactory. I therefore began to organize my scouts on a system which I hoped would give better results than had the method hitherto pursued in the department, which was to employ on this service doubtful citizens and Confederate deserters. If these should turn out untrustworthy, the mischief they might do us gave me grave apprehension, and I finally concluded that those of our own soldiers who should volunteer for the delicate and hazardous duty would be the most valuable material, and decided [276] that they should have a battalion organization and be commanded by an officer, Major H. K. Young, of the First Rhode Island Infantry. These men were disguised in Confederate uniforms whenever necessary, were paid from the Secret-Service Fund in proportion to the value of the intelligence they furnished, which often stood us in good stead in checking the forays of Gilmore, Mosby, and other irregulars. Beneficial results came from the plan in many other ways too, and particularly so when in a few days two of my scouts put me in the way of getting news conveyed from Winchester. They had learned that just outside of my lines, near Millwood, there was living an old colored man, who had a permit from the Confederate commander to go into Winchester and return three times a week, for the purpose of selling vegetables to the inhabitants. The scouts had sounded this man, and, finding him both loyal and shrewd, suggested that he might be made useful to us within the enemy's lines; and the proposal struck me as feasible, provided there could be found in Winchester some reliable person who would be willing to co-operate and correspond with me. I asked General Crook, who was acquainted with many of the Union people of Winchester, if he knew of such a person, and he recommended a Miss Rebecca Wright, a young lady whom he had met there before the battle of Kernstown, who, he said, was a member of the Society of Friends and the teacher of a small private school. He knew she was faithful and loyal to the Government, and thought she might be willing to render us assistance, but he could not be certain of this, for on account of her well-known loyalty she was under constant surveillance. I hesitated at first, but finally deciding to try it, despatched the two scouts to the old negro's cabin, and they brought him to my headquarters late that night. I was soon convinced of the negro's fidelity, and asking him if he was acquainted with Miss Rebecca Wright, of Winchester, he replied that he knew her well. Thereupon I told him what I wished to do. and after a little persuasion he agreed to carry a letter to her on his next marketing trip. My message was prepared by writing it on tissue paper, which was then compressed into a small pellet, and protected by wrapping it in tin-foil so that it could be safely carried in the man's mouth. The probability of his being searched when he came to the Confederate picket-line was not remote, and in such event he was to swallow the pellet. The letter appealed to Miss Wright's loyalty and patriotism, and, requested her to furnish me with information regarding the strength and condition of Early's army. The night before the negro started one of the scouts placed the oddlooking communication in his hands, with renewed injunctions as to secrecy and promptitude. Early the next morning it was delivered to Miss Wright, with an intimation that a letter of importance was enclosed in [277] the tin-foil, the negro telling her at the same time that she might expect him to call for a message in reply before his return home. At first Miss Wright began to open the pellet nervously, but when told to be careful, and to preserve the foil as a wrapping for her answer, she proceeded slowly and carefully, and when the note appeared intact the messenger retired, remarking again that in the evening he would come for an answer.

On reading my communication Miss Wright was much startled by the perils it involved, and hesitatingly consulted her mother, but her devoted loyalty soon silenced every other consideration, and the brave girl resolved to comply with my request, notwithstanding it might jeopardize her life. The evening before a convalescent Confederate officer had visited her mother's house, and in conversation about the war had disclosed the fact that Kershaw's division of infantry and Cutshaw's battalion of artillery had started to rejoin General Lee. At the time Miss Wright heard this she attached little if any importance to it, but now she perceived the value of the intelligence, and, as her first venture, determined to send it to me at once, which she did with a promise that in the future she would with great pleasure continue to transmit information by the negro messenger.

Miss Wright's answer proved of more value to me than she anticipated, for it not only quieted the conflicting reports concerning Anderson's corps, but was most important in showing positively that Kershaw was gone, and this circumstance led, three days later, to the battle of the Opequon, or Winchester as it has been unofficially called.1 Word to the effect that some of Early's troops were under orders to return to Petersburg, and would start back at the first favorable opportunity, had been communicated to me already from many sources, but we had not been able to ascertain the date for their departure. Now that they had actually started, I decided to wait before offering battle until Kershaw had gone so far as to preclude his return, feeling confident that my prudence would be justified by the improved chances of victory; and then, besides, Mr. Stanton kept reminding me that positive success was necessary to counteract the political dissatisfaction existing in some of the Northern States. This course was advised [278] and approved by General Grant, but even with his powerful backing it was difficult to resist the persistent pressure of those whose Judgment, warped by their interests in the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, was often confused and misled by stories of scouts (sent out from Washington), averring that Kershaw and Fitzhugh Lee had returned to Petersburg, Breckenridge to southwestern Virginia, and at one time even maintaining that Early's whole army was east of the Blue Ridge, and its commander himself at Gordonsville.

During the inactivity prevailing in my army for the ten days preceding Miss Wright's communication the infantry was quiet, with the exception of Getty's division, which made a reconnoissance to the Opequon, and developed a heavy force of the enemy at Edwards's Corners. The cavalry, however, was employed a good deal in this interval skirmishing-heavily at times — to maintain a space about six miles in width between the hostile lines, for I wished to control this ground so that when I was released from the instructions of August 12 I could move my men into position for attack without the knowledge of Early. The most noteworthy of these mounted encounters was that of Mclntosh's brigade, which captured the Eighth South Carolina at Abraham's Creek September 13.

It was the evening of the 16th of September that I received from Miss Wright the positive information that Kershaw was in march toward Front Royal on his way by Chester Gap to Richmond. Concluding that this was my opportunity, I at once resolved to throw my whole force into Newtown the next day, but a despatch from General Grant directing [279]

Miss Rebecca M. Wright.

[280] me to meet him at Charlestown, whither he was coming to consult with me, caused me to defer action until after I should see him. In our resulting interview at Charlestown, I went over the situation very thoroughly, and pointed out with so much confidence the chances of a complete victory should I throw my army across the Valley pike near Newtown that he fell in with the plan at once, authorized me to resume the offensive, and to attack Early as soon as I deemed it most propitious to do so; and although before leaving City Point he had outlined certain operations for my army, yet he neither discussed nor disclosed his plans, my knowledge of the situation striking him as being so much more accurate than his own.2

The interview over, I returned to my army to arrange for its movement toward Newtown, but while busy with these preparations, a report came to me from General Averell which showed that Early was moving with two divisions of infantry toward Martinsburg. This considerably altered the state of affairs, and I now decided to change my plan and attack at once the two divisions remaining about Winchester and Stephenson's depot, and later, the two sent to Martinsburg; the disjointed state of the enemy giving me an opportunity to take him in detail, unless the Martinsburg column should be returned by forced marches.

While General Early was in the telegraph office at Martinsburg on the morning of the 18th, he learned of Grant's visit to me; and anticipating activity by reason of this circumstance, he promptly proceeded to withdraw so as to get the two divisions within supporting distance of Ramseur's, which lay across the Berryville pike about two miles east of Winchester, between Abraham's Creek and Red Bud Run, so by the night of the 18th Wharton's division, under Breckenridge, was at Stephenson's depot, Rodes near there, and Gordon's at Bunker Hill. At daylight of the 19th these positions of the Confederate infantry still obtained, with the cavalry of Lomax, Jackson, and Johnson on the right of Ramseur, while to the left and rear of the enemy's general line was Fitzhugh Lee, covering from Stephenson's depot west across the Valley pike to Apple-pie Ridge. [281]

My army3 moved at 3 o'clock that morning. The plan was for Torbert to advance with Merritt's division of cavalry from Summit Point, carry the crossings of the Opequon at Stevens's and Lock's fords, and form a junction near Stephenson's depot, with Averell, who was to move south from Darksville by the Valley pike. Meanwhile, Wilson [282] was to strike up the Berryville pike, carry the Berryville crossing of the Opequon, charge through the gorge or cafion on the road west of the stream, and occupy the open ground at the head of this defile. Wilson's attack was to be supported by the Sixth and Nineteenth corps, which were ordered to the Berryville crossing, and as the cavalry gained the open ground beyond the gorge, the two infantry corps, under command of General Wright, were expected to press on after [283] and occupy Wilson's ground, who was then to shift to the south bank of Abraham's Creek and cover my left; Crook's two divisions, having to march from Summit Point, were to follow the Sixth and Nineteenth corps to the Opequon, and should they arrive before the action began, they were to be held in reserve till the proper moment [284] came, and then, as a turning-column, be thrown over toward the Valley pike, south of Winchester.

McIntosh's brigade of Wilson's division drove the enemy's pickets away from the Berryville crossing at dawn, and Wilson following rapidly through the gorge with the rest of the division, debouched from its western extremity with such suddenness as to capture a small earthwork in front of General Ramseur's main line; and notwithstanding the Confederate infantry, on recovering from its astonishment, tried hard to dislodge them, Wilson's troopers obstinately held the work till [285] the Sixth Corps came up. I followed Wilson to select the ground on which to form the infantry. The Sixth Corps began to arrive about 8 o'clock, and taking up the line Wilson had been holding, just beyond [286] the head of the narrow ravine, the cavalry was transferred to the south side of Abraham's Creek.

The Confederate line lay along some elevated ground about two miles east of Winchester, and extended from Abraham's Creek north across the Berryville pike, the left being hidden in the heavy timber on Red Bud Run. Between this line and mine, especially on my right, [287] clumps of woods and patches of underbrush occurred here and there, but the undulating ground consisted mainly of open fields, many of which were covered with standing corn that had already ripened. [288]

Much time was lost in getting all of the Sixth and Nineteenth corps through the narrow defile, Grover's division being greatly delayed there by a train of ammunition wagons, and it was not until late in the forenoon that the troops intended for the attack could be got into line ready to advance. General Early was not slow to avail himself of the advantages thus offered him, and my chances of striking [289] him in detail were growing less every moment, for Gordon and Rodes were hurrying their divisions from Stephenson's depot acrosscountry on a line that would place Gordon in the woods south of Red Bud Run, and bring Rodes into the interval between Gordon and Ramseur. [290]

When the two corps had all got through the cafion they were formed with Getty's division of the Sixth to the left of the Berryville pike, Rickett's division to the right of the pike, and Russell's division in reserve in rear of the other two. Grover's division of the Nineteenth Corps came next on the right of Rickett's, with Dwight to its rear in reserve, while Crook was to begin massing near the Opequon crossing about the time Wright and Emory were ready to attack. [291]

Just before noon the line of Getty, Ricketts, and Grover moved forward, and as we advanced, the Confederates, covered by some heavy woods on their right, slight underbrush and corn-fields along their centre, and a large body of timber on their left along the Red Bud, opened fire from their whole front. We gained considerable ground at first, especially on our left but the desperate resistance which the right met with demonstrated that the time we had unavoidably lost in the morning [292] had been of incalculable value to Early, for it was evident that he had been enabled already to so far concentrate his troops as to have the different divisions of his army in a connected line of battle in good shape to resist.

Getty and Ricketts made some progress toward Winchester in connection with Wilson's cavalry, which was beyond the Senseny road on Getty's left, and as they were pressing back Ramseur's infantry and Lomax's cavalry Grover attacked from the right with decided effect. Grover in a few minutes broke up Evans's brigade of Gordon's division, but his pursuit of Evans destroyed the continuity of my general line, and increased an interval that had already been made by the deflection of Ricketts to the left, in obedience to instructions that had been given him to guide his division on the Berryville pike. As the line pressed forward, Ricketts observed this widening interval and endeavored to fill it with the small brigade of Colonel Keifer, but at this juncture both Gordon and Rodes struck the weak spot where the right of the Sixth Corps and the left of the Nineteenth should have been in conjunction, and succeeded in checking my advance by driving back a part of Ricketts's division, and the most of Grover's. As these troops were retiring I ordered Russell's reserve division to be put into action, and just as the flank of the enemy's troops in pursuit of Grover was presented, Upton's brigade, led in person by both Russell and Upton, struck it in a charge so vigorous as to drive the Confederates back in turn to their original ground.

The success of Russell enabled me to re-establish the right of my line some little distance in advance of the position from which it started in the morning, and behind Russell's division (now commanded by Upton) the broken regiments of Ricketts's division were rallied. Dwight's division was then brought up on the right, and Grover's men formed behind it.

The charge of Russell was most opportune, but it cost many men in killed and wounded. Among the former was the courageous Russell himself, killed by a piece of shell that passed through his heart, although he had previously been struck by a bullet in the left breast, which wound, from its nature, must have proved mortal, yet of which he had not spoken. Russell's death oppressed us all with sadness, and me particularly. In the early days of my army life he was my captain and friend, and I was deeply indebted to him, not only for sound advice and good example, but for the inestimable service he had just performed, and sealed with his life, so it may be inferred how keenly I felt his loss.

As my lines were being rearranged, it was suggested to me to put Crook into the battle, but so strongly had I set my heart on using him [293] to take possession of the Valley pike and cut off the enemy, that I resisted this advice, hoping that the necessity for putting him in would be obviated by the attack near Stephenson's depot that Torbert's cavalry was to make, and from which I was momentarily expecting to hear. No news of Torbert's progress came, however, so, yielding at last, I directed Crook to take post on the right of the Nineteenth Corps and, when the action was renewed, to push his command forward as a turning column in conjunction with Emory. After some delay in the annoying defile, Crook got his men up, and posting Colonel Thoburn's division on the prolongation of the Nineteenth Corps, he formed Colonel Duval's division to the right of Thoburn. Here I joined Crook, informing him that I had just got word that Torbert was driving the enemy in confusion along the Martinsburg pike toward Winchester; at the same time I directed him to attack the moment all of Duval's men were in line. Wright was instructed to advance in concert with Crook, by swinging Emory and the right of the Sixth Corps to the left together in a half-wheel. Then leaving Crook, I rode along the Sixth and Nineteenth corps, the open ground over which they were passing affording a rare opportunity to witness the precision with which the attack was taken up from right to left. Crook's success began the moment he started to turn the enemy's left; and assured by the fact that Torbert had stampeded the Confederate cavalry and thrown Breckenridge's infantry into such disorder that it could do little to prevent the envelopment of Gordon's left, Crook pressed forward without even a halt.

Both Emory and Wright took up the fight as ordered, and as they did so I sent word to Wilson, in the hope that he could partly perform the work originally laid out for Crook, to push along the Senseny road and, if possible, gain the valley pike south of Winchester. I then returned toward my right flank, and as I reached the Nineteenth Corps the enemy was contesting the ground in its front with great obstinacy; but Emory's dogged persistence was at length rewarded with success, just as Crook's command emerged from the morass of Red Bud Run, and swept around Gordon, toward the right of Breckenridge, who, with two of Wharton's brigades, was holding a line at right angles with the Valley pike for the protection of the Confederate rear. Early had ordered these two brigades back from Stephenson's depot in the morning, purposing to protect with them his right flank and line of retreat, but while they were en route to this end, he was obliged to recall them to his left to meet Crook's attack.

To confront Torbert, Patton's brigade of infantry and some of Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry had been left back by Breckenridge, but, with Averell on the west side of the Valley pike and Merritt on the east, [294] Torbert began to drive this opposing force toward Winchester the moment he struck it near Stephenson's depot, keeping it on the go till it reached the position held by Breckenridge, where it endeavored to make a stand.

The ground which Breckenridge was holding was open, and offered an opportunity such as seldom had been presented during the war for a mounted attack, and Torbert was not slow to take advantage of it. The instant Merritt's division could be formed for the charge, it went at Breckenridge's infantry and Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry with such momentum as to break the Confederate left, just as Averell was passing around it. Merritt's brigades, led by Custer, Lowell, and Devin, met from the start with pronounced success, and with sabre or pistol in hand literally rode down a battery of five guns and took about 1,200 prisoners. Almost simultaneously with this cavalry charge, Crook struck Breckenridge's right and Gordon's left, forcing these divisions to give way, and as they retired, Wright, in a vigorous attack, quickly broke Rodes up and pressed Ramseur so hard that the whole Confederate army fell back, contracting its lines within some breastworks which had been thrown up at a former period of the war, immediately in front of Winchester.

Here Early tried hard to stem the tide, but soon Torbert's cavalry began passing around his left flank, and as Crook, Emory, and Wright attacked in front, panic took possession of the enemy, his troops, now fugitives and stragglers, seeking escape into and through Winchester.

When this second break occurred, the Sixth and Nineteenth corps were moved over toward the Millwood pike to help Wilson on the left, but the day was so far spent that they could render him no assistance, and Ramseur's division, which had maintained some organization, was in such tolerable shape as to check him. Meanwhile Torbert passed around to the west of Winchester to join Wilson, but was unable to do so till after dark. Crook's command pursued the enemy through the town to Mill Creek, I going along.

Just after entering the town Crook and I met, in the main street, three young girls, who gave us the most hearty reception. One of these young women was a Miss Griffith, the other two Miss Jennie and Miss Susie Meredith. During the day they had been watching the battle from the roof of the Meredith residence, with tears and lamentations, they said, in the morning when misfortune appeared to have overtaken the Union troops, but with unbounded exultation when, later, the tide set in against the Confederates. Our presence was, to them, an assurance of victory, and their delight being irrepressible, they indulged in the most unguarded manifestations and expressions. When cautioned by Crook, who knew them well, and reminded that the valley had hitherto [295] been a race-course-one day in the possession of friends, and the next of enemies-and warned of the dangers they were incurring by such demonstrations, they assured him that they had no further fears of that kind now, adding that Early's army was so demoralized by the defeat it had just sustained that it would never be in condition to enter Winchester again. As soon as we had succeeded in calming the excited girls a little I expressed a desire to find some place where I could write a telegram to General Grant informing him of the result of the battle, and General Crook conducted me to the home of Miss Wright, where I met for the first time the woman who had contributed so much to our success, and on a desk in her school-room wrote the despatch announcing that we had sent Early's army whirling up the valley.

My losses in the battle of the Opequon were heavy, amounting to about 4,500 killed, wounded, and missing. Among the killed was General Russell, commanding a division, and the wounded included Generals Upton, Mclntosh and Chapman, and colonels Duval and Sharpe. The Confederate loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners about equaled mine, General Rodes being of the killed, while Generals Fitzhugh Lee and York were severely wounded.

We captured five pieces of artillery and nine battle-flags. The restoration of the lower valley — from the Potomac to Strasburg — to the control of the Union forces caused great rejoicing in the North, and relieved the Administration from further solicitude for the safety of the Maryland and Pennsylvania borders. The President's appreciation of the victory was expressed in a despatch so like Mr. Lincoln that I give a fac-simile of it to the reader. This he supplemented by promoting me to the grade of brigadier-general in the regular army, and assigning me to the permanent command of the Middle Military Department, and following that came warm congratulations from Mr. Stanton and from Generals Grant, Sherman, and Meade.

The battle was not fought out on the plan in accordance with which marching orders were issued to my troops, for I then hoped to take Early in detail, and with Crook's force cut off his retreat. I adhered to this purpose during the early start of the contest, but was obliged to abandon the idea because of unavoidable delays by which I was prevented from getting the Sixth and Nineteenth corps through the narrow defile and into position early enough to destroy Ramseur while still isolated. So much delay had not been anticipated, and this loss of time was taken advantage of by the enemy to recall the troops diverted to Bunker Hill and Martinsburg on the 17th, thus enabling him to bring them all to the support of Ramseur before I could strike with effect. My idea was to attack Ramseur and Wharton, successively, at a very [296]

Executive Mansion Washington, Sept. 20, 1864
Major General Sheridan Winchester, Va.
have just heard of your great victory. God bless you all, officers and men — strongly inclined to come up and see you.

[297] early hour and before they could get succor, but I was not in condition to do it till nearly noon, by which time Gordon and Rodes had been enabled to get upon the ground at a point from which, as I advanced, they enfiladed my right flank, and gave it such a repulse that to re-form this part of my line I was obliged to recall the left from some of the ground it had gained. It was during this reorganization of my lines that I changed my plan as to Crook, and moved him from my left to my right. This I did with great reluctance, for I hoped to destroy Early's army entirely if Crook continued on his original line of march toward the Valley pike, south of Winchester; and although the ultimate results did, in a measure vindicate the change, yet I have always thought that by adhering to the original plan we might have captured the bulk of Early's army. [298]


September 15, 1864.
I learn from Major-General Crook that you are a loyal lady, and still love the old flag. Can you inform me of the position of Early's forces, the number of divisions in his army, and the strength of any or all of them, and his probable or reported intentions? Have any more troops arrived from Richmond, or are any more coming, or reported to be coming?

I am, very respectfully, your most obedient servant, P. H. Sheridan, Major-General Commanding. You can trust the bearer.

September 16, 1864.
I have no communication whatever with the rebels, but will tell you what I know. The division of General Kershaw, and Cutshaw's artillery, twelve guns and men, General Anderson commanding, have been sent away, and no more are expected, as they cannot be spared from Richmond. I do not know how the troops are situated, but the force is much smaller than represented. I will take pleasure hereafter in learning all I can of their strength and position, and the bearer may call again.

Very respectfully yours, ...


[extract from “Grant's Memoirs,” page 328.]

... Before starting I had drawn up a plan of campaign for Sheridan, which I had brought with me; but seeing that he was so clear and so positive in his views, and so confident of success, I said nothing about this, and did not take it out of my pocket ... ,

3 “ORGANIZATION of the Union forces, commanded by Major-General
Philip H. Sheridan, at the battle of Winchester (or
the Opequon), Virginia, September 19, 1864.
headquarters escort:
Sixth United States Cavalry, Captain Ira W. Claflin.
Sixth Army Corps:
Major-General Horatio G. Wright.
First Michigan Cavalry, Company G, Lieutenant William H. Wheeler.
first division:
(1) Brigadier-General David A. Russell.
(2) Brigadier-General Emory Upton.
(3) Colonel Oliver Edwards.
first brigade:
Lieutenant-Colonel Edward L. Campbell.
Fourth New Jersey, Captain Baldwin Hufty.
Tenth New Jersey, Major Lambert Boeman.
Fifteenth New Jersey, Captain William T. Cornish.
Second brigade:
(1) Brigadier-General Emory Upton.
(2) Colonel Joseph E. Hamblin.
Second Connecticut Heavy Artillery, Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie.
Sixty-fifth New York (1), Colonel Joseph E. Hamblin.
Sixty-fifth New York (2), Captain Henry C. Fisk.
One Hundred and Twenty-first New York, Captain John D. P. Douw.
Ninety-fifth and Ninety-Sixth Pennsylvania,3 Captain Francis J Randall.
Third brigade:

(1) Colonel Oliver Edwards.
(2) Colonel Isaac C. Bassett.

Thirty-seventh Massachusetts, Lieutenant-Colonel George L. Montague.
Forty-ninth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel Baynton J. Hickman.
Eighty-second Pennsylvania, Colonel Isaac C. Bassett.
One Hundred and Nineteenth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel Gideon Clark.
Second Rhode Island (battalion), Captain Elisha H. Rhodes.
Fifth Wisconsin (battalion), Major Charles W. Kempf.

Second division:

Brigadier-General George W. Getty.

first brigade:

Brigadier-General Frank Wheaton.

Sixty-second New York, Lieutenant-Colonel Theo. B. Hamilton.
Ninety-third Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel John S. Long.
Ninety-eighth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel John B. Kohler.
One Hundred and Second Pennsylvania, Major James H. Coleman.
One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Pennsylvania, Major Robert Mullroe.

Second brigade:

Colonel James M. Warner.

Lieutenant-Colonel Amasa S. Tracy.4

Second Vermont, Major Enoch E. Johnson.
Third and Fourth Vermont, Major Horace W. Floyd.
Fifth Vermont, Captain Addison Brown, Jr.
Sixth Vermont, Captain Martin W. Davis.
Eleventh Vermont (First Heavy Artillery), Major Aldace F. Walker.
Third brigade:

Brigadier-General Daniel D. Bidwell.

Seventh Maine, Major Stephen C. Fletcher.
Forty-third New York, Major Charles A. Milliken.
Forty-ninth New York (battalion), Lieutenant-Colonel Erastus D. Holt.
Seventy-seventh New York, Lieutenant-Colonel Winsor B. French.
One Hundred and Twenty-second New York, Major Jabez M. Brower.
Sixty-first Pennsylvania (battalion) (1), Captain Charles S. Greene.
Sixty-first Pennsylvania (battalion) (2), Captain David J. Taylor.

Third division:

Brigadier-General James B. Ricketts.

first brigade:

Colonel William Emerson.

Fourteenth New Jersey (1), Major Peter Vredenburgh.
Fourteenth New Jersey (2), Captain Jacob J. Janeway.
One Hundred and Sixth New York, Captain Peter Robertson.
One Hundred and Fifty-first New York, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas M. Fay.
Eighty-seventh Pennsylvania, Colonel John W. Schall.
Tenth Vermont (1), Major Edwin Dillingham.
Tenth Vermont (2), Captain Lucius T. Hunt.

Second brigade:

Colonel J. Warren Keifer.

Sixth Maryland (1), Colonel John W. Horn.
Sixth Maryland (2), Captain Clifton K. Prentiss.
Ninth New York Heavy Artillery, Major Charles Burgess.
One Hundred and Tenth Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel Otho H. Binkley.
One Hundred and Twenty-second Ohio, Colonel Wm. H. Ball.
One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Ohio (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Aaron W. Ebright.
One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Ohio (2), Captain George W. Hoge.
Sixty-seventh Pennsylvania, Lieutenant John F. Young.
One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Pennsylvania (1), Colonel Matthew R. McClennan.
One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Pennsylvania (2), Major Lewis A. May.

artillery brigade:

Colonel Charles H. Tompkins.

Maine Light Artillery, Fifth Battery (E), Captain Greenleaf T. Stevens.
Massachusetts Light Artillery, First Battery (A), Captain Wm. H. McCartney.
New York Light Artillery, First Battery (1), Lieutenant William H. Johnson.
New York Light Artillery, First Battery (2), Lieutenant Orsamus R. Van Etten.
First Rhode Island Light Artillery, Battery C, Lieutenant Jacob H. Lamb.
First Rhode Island Light Artillery, Battery G, Captain George W. Adams.
Fifth United States, Battery M, Captain James McKnight.

Nineteenth Army Corps:

Brigadier-General William H. Emory.

first division:

Brigadier-General William Dwight.

first brigade:

Colonel George L. Beal.

Twenty-ninth Maine (1), Major William Knowlton.
Twenty-ninth Maine (2), Captain Alfied L. Turner.
Thirtieth Massachusetts, Captain Samuel D. Shipley.
One Hundred and Fourteenth New York (1) Colonel Samuel R. Per Lee.
One Hundred and Fourteenth New York (2) Major Oscar H. Curtis.
One Hundred and Sixteenth New York, Colonel George M. Love.
One Hundred and Fifty-third New York, Colonel Edwin P. Davis.

Second brigade
Brigadier-General James W. McMillan.

Twelfth Connecticut (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Frank H. Peck.
Twelfth Connecticut (2), Captain Sydney E. Clark.
One Hundred and Sixtieth New York,5 Lieutenant-Colonel John B. Van Petten.
Forty-seventh Pennsylvania, Colonel Tilghman H. Good.
Eighth Vermont, Colonel Stephen Thomas.

Third brigade: [Detached at Harper's Ferry, and not engaged in the battle.]

Colonel Leonard D. H. Currie.

Thirtieth Maine,6 Captain George W. Randall.
One Hundred and Thirty-third New York, Major Anthony J. Allaire.
One Hundred and Sixty-second New York, Colonel Justus W. Blanchard.
One Hundred and Sixty-fifth New York (six companies), Lieutenant-Colonel Gouverneur Carr.
One Hundred and Seventy-third New York, Major George W. Rogers.


New York Light Artillery, Fifth Battery, Lieutenant John V. Grant.

Second division:

Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover.

first brigade:

Brigadier-General Henry W. Birge.

Ninth Connecticut, Colonel Thomas W. Cahill.
Twelfth Maine, Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Ilsley.
Fourteenth Maine, Colonel Thomas W. Porter.
Twenty-sixth Massachusetts, Colonel Alpha B. Farr.

Fourteenth New Hampshire (1), Colonel Alexander Gardiner.
Fourteenth New Hampshire (2), Captain Flavel L. Tolman.
Seventy-fifth New York (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Willoughby Babcock.
Seventy-fifth New York (2), Major Benjamin F. Thurber.
Second brigade:
Colonel Edward L. Molineux.
Thirteenth Connecticut, Colonel Charles D. Blinn.
Eleventh Indiana, Colonel Daniel Macauley.
Twenty-second Iowa, Colonel Harvey Graham.
Third Massachusetts Cavally (dismounted), Lieutenant-Colonel Lorenzo D. Sargent.
One Hundred and Thirty-first New York, Colonel Nicholas W. Day.
One Hundred and Fifty-ninth New York, Lieutenant-Colonel William Waltermire.
Third brigade:
(1) Colonel Jacob Sharpe.
(2) Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Neafie.

Thirty-eighth Massachusetts, Major Charles F. Allen.
One Hundred and Twenty-eighth New York, Captain Charles R. Anderson.
One Hundred and Fifty-sixth New York (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Neafie.
One Hundred and Fifty-sixth New York (2), Captain James J. Hoyt.
One Hundred and Seventy-fifth New York (three companies), Captain Charles McCarthey.
One Hundred and Seventy-sixth New York, Major Charles Lewis.
Fourth brigade:
Colonel David Shunk.
Eighth Indiana, Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander J. Kenny.
Eighteenth Indiana, Lieutenant-Colonel William S. Charles.
Twenty-fourth Iowa, Lieutenant-Colonel John Q. Wilds.
Twenty-eighth Iowa, Lieutenant-Colonel Bartholomew W. Wilson.

Maine Light Artillery, First Battery (A), Captain Albert W. Bradbury.
reserve artillery:

Captain Elijah D. Taft.

Indiana Light Artillery, Seventeenth Battery, Captain Milton L. Miner.
First Rhode Island Light Artillery, Battery D, Lieutenant Frederick Chase.

Army of West Virginia.

Brigadier-General George Crook.

first division:

Colonel Joseph Thoburn.

first brigade:

Colonel George D. Wells.

Thirty-Fourth Massachusetts, Major Harrison W. Pratt.
Fifth New York Heavy Artillery, Second Battalion, Major Caspar Urban.
One Hundred and Sixteenth Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas F. Wildes.
One Hundred and Twenty-third Ohio, Captain John W. Chamberlin.

Second brigade:7
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert S. Northcott.

First West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel Jacob Weddle.
Fourth West Virginia, Captain Benjamin D. Boswell.
Twelfth West Virginia, Captain Erastus G. Bartlett.

Third brigade:
Colonel Thomas M. Harris.

Twenty-third Illinois (battalion), Captain Samuel A. Simison.
Fifty-fourth Pennsylvania (1), Lieutenant-Colonel John P. Linton
Fifty-fourth Pennsylvania (2), Major Enoch D. Yutzy.

Tenth West Virginia, Major Henry H. Withers.
Eleventh West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel Van H. Bukey.
Fifteenth West Virginia, Major John W. Holliday.

Second division:

(1) Colonel Isaac H. Duval.

(2) Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes.

first brigade:

(1) Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes.

(2) Colonel Hiram F. Duval.

Twenty-third Ohio, Lieutenant Colonel James M. Comly.
Thirty-sixth Ohio (1), Colonel Hiram F. Duval.
Thirty-sixth Ohio (2), Lieutenant-Colonel William H. G. Adney.
Fifth West Virginia (battalion), Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Enochs.
Thirteenth West Virginia, Colonel William R. Brown.

Second brigade:

(1) Colonel Daniel D. Johnson.

(2) Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin F. Coates.

Thirty-fourth Ohio (battalion), Lieutenant-Colonel Luther Furney.
Ninety-first Ohio (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin F. Coates.
Ninety-first Ohio (2), Major Lemuel Z. Cadot.
Ninth West Virginia, Major Benjamin M. Skinner.
Fourteenth West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel George W. Taggart.

artillery brigade:

Captain Henry A. Du Pont.

First Ohio Light Artillery, Battery L, Captain Frank C. Gibbs.
First Pennsylvania Light Artillery, Battery D, Lieutenant William Munk.
Fifth United States, Battery B, Captain Henry A. Du Pont.


Brigadier-General Alfred T. A. Torbert.


First Rhode Island, Major William H. Turner, Jr.

first division:

Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt.

first brigade:

Brigadier-General George A. Custer.

First Michigan, Colonel Peter Stagg.
Fifth Michigan, Major Smith H. Hastings.
Sixth Michigan, Colonel James H. Kidd.
Seventh Michigan, Major Melvin Brewer.
Twenty-fifth New York, Major Charles J. Seymour.

Second brigade:

Colonel Thomas C. Devin.

Fourth New York (1), Major August Hourand.
Fourth New York (2), Major Edward Schwartz.
Sixth New York, Major William E. Beardsley.
Ninth New York, Lieutenant-Colonel George S. Nichols.
Nineteenth New York (First Dragoons), Colonel Alfred Gibbs.
Seventeenth Pennsylvania, Major Coe Durland.

reserve brigade:

Colonel Charles R. Lowell, Jr.

Second Massachusetts, Lieutenant-Colonel Casper Crowninshield.
Sixth Pennsylvania,8 Major Charles L. Leiper.

First United States, Captain Eugene M. Baker.
Second United States (1), Captain Theophilus F. Rodenbough.
Second United States (2), Captain Robert S. Smith
Fifth United States, Lieutenant Gustavus Urban.

Second division:[From Department of West Virginia.]

Brigadier-General William W. Averell.

first brigade:

Colonel James N. Schoonmaker.

Eighth Ohio (detachment), Colonel Alpheus S. Moore.
Fourteenth Pennsylvania (1), Captain Ashbell Duncan.
Fourteenth Pennsylvania (2), Captain William W. Miles.
Twenty-second Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew J. Greenfield.

Second brigade:

Colonel Henry Capehart.

First New York, Major Timothy Quinn.
First West Virginia, Major Harvey Farabee.
Second West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel John J. Hoffman.
Third West Virginia, Major John S. Witcher.


Fifth United States, Battery L, Lieutenant Gulian V. Weir.

Third division:

Brigadier-General James H. Wilson.

first brigade:

(1) Brigadier-General John B. Mcintosh.
(2) Lieutenant-Colonel George A. Purington.

First Connecticut, Major George O. Marcy.
Third New Jersey, Major William P. Robeson, Jr.
Second New York, Captain Walter C. Hull.
Fifth New York, Major Abram H. Krom.
Second Ohio (1), Lieutenant-Colonel George A. Purington.
Second Ohio (2), Major A. Bayard Nettleton.
Eighteenth Pennsylvania (1), Lieutenant-Colonel William P. Brinton.
Eighteenth Pennsylvania (2), Major John W. Phillips.

Second brigade:

Brigadier-General George H. Chapman.

Third Indiana (two companies), Lieutenant Benjamin F. Gilbert.
First New Hampshire (battalion), Colonel John L. Thompson.
Eighth New York, Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Benjamin.
Twenty-second New York, Major Caleb Moore.
First Vermont, Colonel William Wells.


Captain La Rhett L. Livingston.

New York Light Artillery, Sixth Battery,[At Sandy Hook, Md., and not engaged in the battle.] Captain Joseph W. Martin.
First United States, Batteries K and L, Lieutenant Franck E. Taylor.
Second United States, Batteries B and L, Captain Charles H. Peirce.
Second United States, Battery D, Lieutenant Edward B. Williston.
Second United States, Battery M,[At Pleasant Valley, Md., and not engaged In the battle.] Lieutenant Carle A. Woodruff.
Third United States, Batteries C, F, and K,[At Pleasant Valley, Md., and not engaged In the battle.] Captain Dunbar R. Ransom.
Fourth United States, Batteries C and E,[At Pleasant Valley, Md., and not engaged In the battle.] Lieutenant Terence Reilly.

4 Guarding trains, and not engaged in the battle.

5 “Superintended a portion of the line.”

6 Non-veterans of Ninetieth New York attached.

7 Non-veterans of Thirteenth and Fifteenth Maine temporarily attached.

8 Guarding trains, and not engaged in the battle.

9 At Pleasant Valley, Md., and not engaged in the battle.

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