Early's broken army practically made no halt in its retreat after the battle of Cedar Creek
until it reached New Market
, though at Fisher's Hill
was left a small rear-guard of cavalry, which hastily decamped, however, when charged by Gibbs
's brigade on the morning of the 20th.
Between the date of his signal defeat and the 11th of November, the enemy's scattered forces had sufficiently reorganized to permit his again making a reconnoissance in the valley as far north as Cedar Creek
, my army having meanwhile withdrawn to Kernstown
, where it had been finally decided that a defensive line should be held to enable me to detach troops to General Grant
, and where, by reconstructing the Winchester and Potomac railroad from Stephenson
's depot to Harper's Ferry
, any command might be more readily supplied.
Early's reconnoissance north of Cedar Creek
ended in a rapid withdrawal of his infantry after feeling my front, and with the usual ill-fortune to his cavalry; Merritt
with ease across Cedar Creek
on the Middle
and Back roads, while Powell
's cavalry struck McCausland
near Stony Point
, and after capturing two pieces of artillery and about three hundred officers and men, chased him into the Luray Valley
Early got back to New Market
on the 14th of November, and, from lack of subsistence, being unable to continue demonstrations to prevent my reinforcement of General Grant
, began himself to detach to General
by returning Kershaw
's division to Petersburg
, as was definitely ascertained by Torbert
in a reconnoissance to Mount Jackson
At this time General Grant
wished me to send him the Sixth Corps, and it was got ready for the purpose, but when I informed him that Torbert
's reconnoissance had developed the fact that Early
still retained four divisions of infantry and one of cavalry, it was decided, on my suggestion, to let the Sixth Corps remain till the season should be a little further advanced, when the inclemency of the weather would preclude infantry campaigning.
These conditions came about early in December, and by the middle of the month the whole of the Sixth Corps was at Petersburg
; simultaneously with its transfer to that line Early
sending his Second Corps to Lee
During the entire campaign I had been annoyed by guerrilla bands under such partisan chiefs as Mosby
, and others, and this had considerably depleted my line-of-battle strength, necessitating as it did large escorts for my supply-trains.
The most redoubtable of these leaders was Mosby
, whose force was made up from the country around Upperville
, east of the Blue Ridge
, to which section he always fled for a hiding-place when he scented danger.
I had not directed any special operations against these partisans while the campaign was active, but as Mosby
's men had lately killed, within my lines, my chief quartermaster, Colonel Tolles
, and Medical Inspector Ohlenchlager
, I concluded to devote particular attention to these “irregulars” during the lull that now occurred; so on the 28th of November, I directed General Merritt
to march to the Loudoun Valley
and operate against Mosby
, taking care to clear the country of forage and subsistence, so as to prevent the guerrillas from being harbored there in the future, their destruction or capture being wellnigh impossible, on account of their intimate knowledge of the mountain region.
carried out his instructions with his usual sagacity and thoroughness, sweeping widely over each side of his general line of march with flankers, who burned the grain and brought in large herds of cattle, hogs and sheep, which were issued to the troops.
was engaged in this service the Baltimore and Ohio railroad once more received the attention of the enemy; Rosser
, with two brigades of cavalry, crossing the Great North Mountain
, capturing the post of New Creek
, with about five hundred prisoners and seven guns, destroying all the supplies of the garrison, and breaking up the railroad track.
This slight success of the Confederates
in West Virginia
, and the intelligence that they were contemplating further raids in that section, led me to send Crook
there with one division, his other troops going to City Point
; and I hoped that all the threatened places would
thus be sufficiently protected, but negligence at Beverly
resulted in the capture of that station by Rosser
on the 11th of January.
In the meanwhile, Early
established himself with Wharton
's division at Staunton
in winter quarters, posting his cavalry in that neighborhood also, except a detachment at New Market
, and another small one at the signal-station on Three Top Mountain.
The winter was a most severe one, snow falling frequently to the depth of several inches, and the mercury often sinking below zero.
The rigor of the season was very much against the success of any mounted operations, but General Grant
being very desirous to have the railroads broken up about Gordonsville
, on the 19th of December I started the cavalry out for that purpose, Torbert
, with Merritt
, marching through Chester Gap
, while Custer
moved toward Staunton
to make a demonstration in Torbert
's favor, hoping to hold the enemy's troops in the valley.
did not accomplish all that was expected of him, and being surprised by Rosser
near Lacy's Springs before reveille, had to abandon his bivouac and retreat down the valley, with the loss of a number of prisoners, a few horses, and a good many horse equipments, for, because of the suddenness of Rosser
's attack, many of the men had no time to saddle up. As soon as Custer
's retreat was assured, Wharton
's division of infantry was sent to Charlottesville
to check Torbert
, but this had already been done by Lomax
, with the assistance of infantry sent up from Richmond
Indeed, from the very beginning of the movement the Confederates
had been closely observing the columns of Torbert
, and in consequence of the knowledge thus derived, Early
had marched Lomax
in anticipation of an attack there, at the same time sending Rosser
down the valley to meet Custer
in the performance of his task captured two pieces of artillery from Johnson
's and McCausland
's brigades, at Liberty Mills
on the Rapidan River
, but in the main the purpose of the raid utterly failed, so by the 27th of December he returned, many of his men badly frost-bitten from the extreme cold which had prevailed.
This expedition practically closed all operations for the season, and the cavalry was put into winter cantonment near Winchester
The distribution of my infantry to Petersburg
and West Virginia
left with me in the beginning of the new year, as already stated, but the one small division of the Nineteenth Corps.
On account of this diminution of force, it became necessary for me to keep thoroughly posted in regard to the enemy, and I now realized more than I had done hitherto how efficient my scouts had become since under the control of Colonel Young
; for not only did they bring me almost every day intelligence
from within Early
's lines, but they also operated efficiently against the guerrillas infesting West Virginia
, of Maryland
, was the most noted of these since the death of McNeil
, and as the scouts had reported him in Harrisonburg
the latter part of January, I directed two of the most trustworthy to be sent to watch his movements and ascertain his purposes.
In a few days these spies returned with the intelligence that Gilmore
was on his way to Moorefield
, the centre of a very disloyal section in West Virginia
, about ninety miles southwest of Winchester
, where, under the guise of a camp-meeting, a gathering was to take place, at which he expected to enlist a number of men, be joined by a party of about twenty recruits coming from Maryland
, and then begin depredations along the Baltimore and Ohio railroad.
Believing that Gilmore
might be captured, I directed Young to undertake the task, and as a preliminary step he sent to Moorefield
two of his men who early in the war had “refugeed” from that section and enlisted in one of the Union
regiments from West Virginia
In about a week these men came back and reported that Gilmore
was living at a house between three and four miles from Moorefield
, and gave full particulars as to his coming and going, the number of men he had about there and where they rendezvoused.
With this knowledge at hand I directed Young to take twenty of his best men and leave that night for Moorefield
, dressed in Confederate uniforms, telling him that I would have about three hundred cavalry follow in his wake when he had got about fifteen miles start, and instructing him to pass his party off as a body of recruits for Gilmore
coming from Maryland
and pursued by the Yankee
I knew this would allay suspicion and provide him help on the road; and, indeed, as Colonel Whittaker
, who alone knew the secret, followed after the fleeing “Marylanders,” he found that their advent had caused so little remark that the trail would have been lost had he not already known their destination.
Young met with a hearty welcome wherever he halted on the way, and as he passed through the town of Moorefield
learned with satisfaction that Gilmore
still made his headquarters at the house where the report of the two scouts had located him a few days before.
Reaching the designated place about 12 o'clock on the night of the 5th of February, Young, under the representation that he had come directly from Maryland
and was being pursued by the Union
cavalry, gained immediate access to Gilmore
He found the bold guerrilla snugly tucked in bed, with two pistols lying on a chair near by. He was sleeping so soundly that to arouse him Young had to give him a violent shake.
As he awoke and asked who was disturbing his slumbers, Young, pointing at him a cocked six-shooter, ordered him to dress without delay,
and in answer to his inquiry, informed him that he was a prisoner to one of Sheridan
's men had learned of his trouble, but the early appearance of Colonel Whittaker
caused them to disperse; thus the last link between Maryland
and the Confederacy
was carried a prisoner to Winchester
, whence he was sent to Fort Warren
The capture of Gilmore
caused the disbandment of the party he had organized at the “camp-meeting,” most of the men he had recruited returning to their homes discouraged, though some few joined the bands of Woodson
and young Jesse McNeil
, which, led by the latter, dashed into Cumberland, Maryland
, at 3 o'clock on the morning of the 21st of February and made a reprisal by carrying off General Crook
and General Kelly
, and doing their work so silently and quickly that they escaped without being noticed, and were some distance on their way before the colored watchman at the hotel where Crook
was quartered could compose himself enough to give the alarm.
A troop of cavalry gave hot chase from Cumberland
, striving to intercept the party at Moorefield
and other points, but all efforts were fruitless, the prisoners soon being beyond reach.
Although I had adopted the general rule of employing only soldiers as scouts, there was an occasional exception to it. I cannot say that these exceptions proved wholly that an iron-clad observance of the rule would have been best, but I am sure of it in one instance.
A man named Lomas
, who claimed to be a Marylander, offered me his services as a spy, and coming highly recommended from Mr. Stanton
, who had made use of him in that capacity, I employed him. He made many pretensions, often appearing over anxious to impart information seemingly intended to impress me with his importance, and yet was more than ordinarily intelligent, but in spite of that my confidence in him was by no means unlimited.
I often found what he reported to me as taking place within the Confederate
lines corroborated by Young
's men, but generally there were discrepancies in his tales, which led me to suspect that he was employed by the enemy as well as by me. I felt, however, that with good watching he could do me little harm, and if my suspicions were incorrect he might be very useful, so I held on to him.
Early in February Lomas
was very solicitous for me to employ a man who, he said, had been with Mosby
, but on account of some quarrel in the irregular camp had abandoned that leader.
Thinking that with two of them I might destroy the railroad bridges east of Lynchburg
, I concluded, after the Mosby man had been brought to my headquarters by Lomas
about 12 o'clock one night, to give him employment, at the same time informing Colonel Young
that I suspected their fidelity, however, and that he must test it by shadowing their every movement.
's companion entered my room he was completely disguised, but on discarding the various contrivances by which his identity was concealed he proved to be a rather slender, dark complexioned, handsome young man, of easy address and captivating manners.
He gave his name as Renfrew
, answered all my questions satisfactorily, and went into details about Mosby
and his men which showed an intimacy with them at some time.
I explained to the two men the work I had laid out for them, and stated the sum of money I would give to have it done, but stipulated that in case of failure there would be no compensation whatever beyond the few dollars necessary for their expenses.
They readily assented, and it was arranged that they should start the following night.
Meanwhile Young had selected his men to shadow them, and in two days reported my spies as being concealed at Strasburg
, where they remained, without making the slightest effort to continue on their mission, and were busy, no doubt, communicating with the enemy, though I was not able to fasten this on them.
On the 16th of February they returned to Winchester
, and reported their failure, telling so many lies about their hazardous adventure as to remove all remaining doubt as to their double-dealing.
Unquestionably they were spies from the enemy, and hence liable to the usual penalties of such service; but it struck me that through them I might deceive Early
as to the time of opening the spring campaign, I having already received from General Grant
an intimation of what was expected of me. I therefore retained the men without even a suggestion of my knowledge of their true character, Young meanwhile keeping close watch over all their doings.
Toward the last of February General Early
had at Staunton
two brigades of infantry under Wharton
All the rest of the infantry except Echol
's brigade, which was in southwestern Virginia
, had been sent to Petersburg
during the winter, and Fitz. Lee
's two brigades of cavalry also.
's men were mostly at their homes, where, on account of a lack of subsistence and forage in the valley, they had been permitted to go, subject to call.
's cavalry was at Millboroa, west of Staunton
, where supplies were obtainable.
It was my aim to get well on the road before Early
could collect these scattered forces, and as many of the officers had been in the habit of amusing themselves fox-hunting during the latter part of the winter, I decided to use the hunt as an expedient for stealing a march on the enemy, and had it given out officially that a grand fox-chase would take place on the 29th of February.
Knowing that Lomas
would spread the announcement South
, they were permitted to see several red foxes that had been secured, as well as a large pack of hounds which Colonel Young
had collected for the sport, and were then started on a second expedition to burn the bridges.
Of course, they were shadowed as usual, and two days later, after they had communicated with friends from their hiding-place in Newtown
, they were arrested.
On the way north to Fort Warren
they escaped from their guards when passing through Baltimore
, and I never heard of them again, though I learned that, after the assassination of Mr. Lincoln
, Secretary Stanton
strongly suspected his friend Lomas
of being associated with the conspirators, and it then occurred to me that the good-looking Renfrew
may have been Wilkes Booth
, for he certainly bore a strong resemblance to Booth
On the 27th of February my cavalry entered upon the campaign which cleared the Shenandoah Valley of every remnant of organized Confederates.
being absent on leave at this time, I did not recall him, but appointed General Merritt Chief of Cavalry
, for Torbert
had disappointed me on two important occasions — in the Luray Valley
during the battle of Fisher's Hill
, and on the recent Gordonsville
expedition-and I mistrusted his ability to conduct any operations requiring much self-reliance.
The column was composed of Custer
's and Devin
's divisions of cavalry, and two sections of artillery, comprising in all about 10,000 officers and men. On wheels we had, to accompany this column, eight ambulances, sixteen ammunition wagons, a pontoon train for eight canvas boats, and a small supply-train, with fifteen days rations of coffee, sugar, and salt, it being intended to depend on the country for the meat and bread ration, the men carrying in their haversacks nearly enough to subsist them till out of the exhausted valley.
's orders were for me to destroy the Virginia Central railroad and the James River canal
, capture Lynchburg
if practicable, and then join General Sherman
in North Carolina
wherever he might be found, or return to Winchester
, but as to joining Sherman
I was to be governed by the state of affairs after the projected capture of Lynchburg
The weather was cold, the valley and surrounding mountains being still covered with snow; but this was fast disappearing, however, under the heavy rain that was coming down as the column moved along up the Valley pike
at a steady gait that took us to Woodstock
the first day. The second day we crossed the North Fork
of the Shenandoah
on our pontoonbridge, and by night-fall reached Lacy's Springs, having seen nothing of the enemy as yet but a few partisans who hung on our flanks in the afternoon.
March 1 we encountered General Rosser
at Mt. Crawford
, he having been able to call together only some five or six hundred of his troops, our unsuspected march becoming known to Early
only the day before.
attempted to delay us here, trying to burn the bridges over the Middle Fork
of the Shenandoah
, but two regiments from Colonel
's brigade swam the stream and drove Rosser
to Kline's Mills, taking thirty prisoners and twenty ambulances and wagons.
Meanwhile General Early
was busy at Staunton
, but not knowing my objective point, he had ordered the return of Echol
's brigade from southwestern Virginia
for the protection of Lynchburg
, directed Lomax
's cavalry to concentrate at Pond Gap
for the purpose of harassing me if I moved toward Lynchburg
, and at the same time marched Wharton
's two brigades of infantry, Nelson's artillery, and Rosser
's cavalry to Waynesboroa, whither he went also to remain till the object of my movement was ascertained.
I entered Staunton
the morning of March 2, and finding that Early
had gone to Waynesboroa with his infantry and Rosser
, the question at once arose whether I should continue my march to Lynchburg
direct, leaving my adversary in my rear, or turn east and open the way through Rockfish Gap to the Virginia Central railroad and James River canal.
I felt confident of the success of the latter plan, for I knew that Early
numbered there not more than two thousand men; so, influenced by this, and somewhat also by the fact that Early
had left word in Staunton
that he would fight at Waynesboroa, I directed Merritt
to move toward that place with Custer
, to be closely followed by Devin
, who was to detach one brigade to destroy supplies at Swoope's depot.
The by-roads were miry beyond description, rain having fallen almost incessantly since we left Winchester
, but notwithstanding the down-pour the column pushed on, men and horses growing almost unrecognizable from the mud covering them from head to foot.
was true to the promise made his friends in Staunton
, for when Custer
neared Waynesboroa he found, occupying a line of breastworks on a ridge west of the town, two brigades of infantry, with eleven pieces of artillery and Rosser
, when developing the position of the Confederates
, discovered that their left was somewhat exposed instead of resting on South River
; he therefore made his dispositions for attack, sending around that flank the dismounted regiments from Pennington
's brigade, while he himself, with two brigades, partly mounted and partly dismounted, assaulted along the whole line of breastworks.
's flanking movement stampeded the enemy in short order, thus enabling Custer
to carry the front with little resistance, and as he did so the Eighth New York and First Connecticut, in a charge in column, broke through the opening made by Custer
, and continued on through the town of Waynesboroa, never stopping till they crossed South River
There, finding themselves immediately in the enemy's rear, they promptly formed as foragers and held the east bank of the stream till all the Confederates
surrendered except Rosser
succeeded in making his way back to the valley, and Generals Early
, and Lilley
, who, with fifteen or twenty men, escaped across the Blue Ridge
I followed up the victory immediately by despatching Capehart
through Rock-fish Gap, with orders to encamp on the east side of the Blue Ridge
By reason of this move all the enemy's stores and transportation fell into our hands, while we captured on the field seventeen battle flags, sixteen hundred officers and men, and eleven pieces of artillery.
This decisive victory closed hostilities in the Shenandoah Valley.
The prisoners and artillery were sent back to Winchester
next morning, under a guard of 1,500 men, commanded by Colonel J. H. Thompson
, of the First New Hampshire.
The night of March 2 Custer
camped at Brookfield
remaining at Waynesboroa.
The former started for Charlottesville
the next morning early, followed by Devin
with but two brigades.
having been left behind to blow up the iron railroad bridge across South River
Because of the incessant rains and spring thaws the roads were very soft, and the columns cut them up .terribly, the mud being thrown by the sets of fours across the road in ridges as much as two feet high, making it most difficult to get our wagons along, and distressingly wearing on the animals toward the middle and rear of the columns.
Consequently I concluded to rest at Charlottesville
for a couple of days and recuperate a little, intending at the same time to destroy; with small parties, the railroad from that point toward Lynchburg
the 3d, in the afternoon, and was met at the outskirts by a deputation of its citizens, headed by the mayor, who surrendered the town with mediaeval ceremony, formally handing over the keys of the public buildings and of the University of Virginia.
But this little scene did not delay Custer
long enough to prevent his capturing, just beyond the village, a small body of cavalry and three pieces of artillery.
's brigade, which was bringing up my mud-impeded train, did not arrive until the 5th of March.
In the mean time Young
's scouts had brought word that the garrison of Lynchburg
was being increased and the fortifications strengthened, so that its capture would be improbable.
I decided, however, to move toward the place as far as Amherst Court House
, which is sixteen miles short of the town, so Devin
, under Merritt
's supervision, marched along the James River
, destroying the canal, while Custer
pushed ahead on the railroad and broke it up. The two columns were to join at New Market
, whence I intended to cross the James River
at some point east of Lynchburg
, if practicable, so as to make my way to Appomattox Court House, and destroy the Southside railroad as far east as Farmville
Owing to its swollen condition the river was unfordable, but knowing that there was a covered bridge at Duguids-
ville, I hoped to secure it by a dash, and cross there, but the enemy, anticipating this, had filled the bridge with inflammable material, and just as our troops got within striking distance it burst into flames.
The bridge at Hardwicksville also having been burned by the enemy, there was now no means of crossing except by pontoons, but, unfortunately, I had only eight of these, and they could not be made to span the swollen river.
Being thus unable to cross until the river should fall, and knowing that it was impracticable to join General Sherman
, and useless to adhere to my alternative instructions to return to Winchester
, I now decided to destroy still more thoroughly the James River canal
and the Virginia Central railroad and then join General Grant
in front of Petersburg
I was master of the whole country north of the James
as far down as Goochland
; hence the destruction of these arteries of supply could be easily compassed, and feeling that the war was nearing its end, I desired my cavalry to be in at the death.
On March 9 the main column started eastward down the James River
, destroying locks, dams, and boats, having been preceded by Colonel Fitzhugh
's brigade of Devin
's division in a forced march to Goochland
and Beaver Dam Creek
, with orders to destroy everything below Columbia
I made Columbia
on the 10th, and from there sent a communication to General Grant
reporting what had occurred, informing him of my condition and intention, asking him to send forage and rations to meet me at the White House
, and also a pontoon-bridge to carry me over the Pamunkey
, for in view of the fact that hitherto it had been impracticable to hold Lee
in the trenches around Petersburg
, I regarded as too hazardous a march down the south bank of the Pamunkey
, where the enemy, by sending troops out from Richmond
, might fall upon my flank and rear.
It was of the utmost importance that General Grant
should receive these despatches without chance of failure, in order that I might depend absolutely on securing supplies at the White House
; therefore I sent the message in duplicate, one copy overland direct to City Point
by two scouts, Campbell
, and the other by Fannin
, who were to go down the James River
in a small boat to Richmond
, join the troops in the trenches in front of Petersburg
, and, deserting to the Union
lines, deliver their tidings into General Grant
Each set of messengers got through, but the copy confided to Campbell
was first at Grant
I halted for one day at Columbia
to let my trains catch up, for it was still raining and the mud greatly delayed the teams, fatiguing and wearying the mules so much that I believe we should have been forced to abandon most of the wagons except for the invaluable help given by
some two thousand negroes who had attached themselves to the column: they literally lifted the wagons out of the mud. From Columbia Merritt
, with Devin
's division, marched to Louisa Court House and destroyed the Virginia Central
to Frederick's Hall.
was performing similar work from Frederick's Hall to Beaver Dam Station
, and also pursued for a time General Early
, who, it was learned from despatches captured in the telegraph office at Frederick's Hall, was in the neighborhood with a couple of hundred men. Custer
captured some of these men and two of Early
's staff-officers, but the commander of the Valley District, accompanied by a single orderly, escaped across the South Anna
and next day made his way to Richmond
, the last man of the Confederate army that had so long contended with us in the Shenandoah Valley.
At Frederick's Hall, Young
's scouts brought me word from Richmond
that General Longstreet
was assembling a force there to prevent my junction with Grant
, and that Pickett
's division, which had been sent toward Lynchburg
to oppose my march, and Fitzhugh Lee
's cavalry, were moving east on the Southside railroad, with the object of circumventing me. Reasoning that Longstreet
could interpose effectually only by getting to the White House
ahead of me, I pushed one column under Custer
across the South Anna
, by way of Ground Squirrel bridge, to Ashland
, where it united with Merritt
, who had meanwhile marched through Hanover Junction
Our appearance at Ashland
drew the Confederates
out in that direction, as was hoped, so, leaving Colonel Pennington
's brigade there to amuse them, the united command retraced its route to Mount Carmel church to cross the North Anna
After dark Pennington
came away, and all the troops reached the church by midnight of the 15th.
Resuming the march at an early hour next morning, we took the road by way of King William Court House to the White House
, where, arriving on the 18th, we found, greatly to our relief, the supplies which I had requested to be sent there.
In the meanwhile the enemy had marched to Hanover Court House, but being unable either to cross the Pamunkey
there or forestall me at the White House
on the south side of the river, he withdrew to Richmond
without further effort to impede my column.
The hardships of this march far exceeded those of any previous campaigns by the cavalry.
Almost incessant rains had drenched us for sixteen days and nights, and the swollen streams and wellnigh bottomless roads east of Staunton
presented grave difficulties on every hand, but surmounting them all, we destroyed the enemy's means of subsistence, in quantities beyond computation, and permanently crippled the Virginia
Central railroad, as well as the James River canal
, and as each day brought us nearer the Army of the Potomac, all were filled with the comforting reflection that our work in the Shenandoah Valley had been thoroughly done, and every one was buoyed up by the cheering thought that we should soon take part in the final struggle of the war.