Relative strength of the armies.
The consolidated morning reports of the Union Army
for June 30th, 1863, give the numbers “actually available for line of battle,” or the effective force, including officers and men, as follows:
|command. ||Cavalry. ||Artillery. ||Infantry. ||Total.|
|First Army Corps ||67 ||619 ||9,403 ||10,089|
|Second Army Corps ||82 ||551 ||12,363 ||12,996|
|Third Army Corps || ||677 ||11,247 ||11,924|
|Fifth Army Corps || ||555 ||11,954 ||12,509|
|Sixth Army Corps ||124 ||1,039 ||14,516 ||15,679|
|Eleventh Army Corps ||52 ||644 ||9,197 ||9,893|
|Twelfth Army Corps || ||396 ||8,193 ||8,589|
|Cavalry Corps ||12,653 ||491 || ||13,144|
|Artillery Reserve || ||2,211 ||335 ||2,546|
|Aggregate ||12,978 ||7,183 ||77,208 ||97,369|
Between June 30th and July 3d, the reinforcements that joined the army may be estimated as follows:
|Stannard's brigade to First Corps ||2,500|
|Lockwood's brigade to Twelfth Corps ||1,700|
|Duvall's company Maryland cavalry to Gregg's cavalry division ||60|
|Rank's Pennsylvania artillery to Gregg's cavalry division ||50|
|Total reenforcements ||4,310|
This number, added to the strength as per returns of June 30th, makes a maximum of 101,679 effectives of all arms.
The severe marches following the roll-call of June 30th considerably reduced by sickness and straggling the strength of the commands, but a satisfactory computation of the shrinkage front these causes does not seem possible.
It may have ranged from five to ten per cent. The field returns of the infantry and artillery of the army corps, for July 4th, give the following effective figures:
|First Corps (except one regiment detailed as wagon guard) ||5,430|
|Second Corps ||6,923|
|Third Corps ||6,130|
|Fifth Corps ||9,553|
|Sixth Corps ||12,832|
|Eleventh Corps ||5,513|
|Twelfth Corps (except one Battery on reconnoissance) ||9,757|
Adding to this the loss of 21,905 sustained by the commands mentioned, gives an approximate calculation of the strength of the seven army corps, viz., 78,043.
There are no field returns of the Cavalry Corps or the Artillery Reserve for July 4th.
But by assuming, in round numbers, 78,000 as the maximum fighting strength of the seven army corps, and adding 13,000 for the Cavalry Corps, and 2500 for the Artillery Reserve (as shown by the return for June 30th), an aggregate of
93,500 is obtained.
The effective strength as reported by the seven army corps commanders at the council held on the evening of July 2d, was as follows: “About 9000, 12,500, 9000, 6000, 8500, 6000, 7000,--total 58,000.”
Unfortunately the particular corps represented by these figures are not stated in the minutes of the council.
According to the returns of the Confederate Army for May 31st, 1863 (the latest immediately preceding the battle), the “effective total” of enlisted menwas:
|Stuart's Cavalry ||9,536|
's and Garnett
's artillery battalions, consisting of ten batteries, are not included in the above figures.
Their effective strength may, however, be put at 800 officers and men. There were also 6116 officers borne on the return as “present for duty,” which, added to the foregoing, give an aggregate of 75,268 officers and men.
The accessions by organizations to the army between May 31st and July 3d, were as follows;
| ||Estimated at not less than|
Pettigrew's infantry brigade ||2,000|
Jenkins's cavalry brigade ||1,600|
Imboden's cavalry brigade ||2,000|
|Total gain ||5,600|
The loss by organizations during the same period was:
Corse's brigade and one regiment of Pettigrew's brigade left at Hanover Court House, Va ||2,000|
|2d. Three regiments of Early's division left at Winchester, Va ||1,000|
|3d. One regiment of Stuart's cavalry left in Virginia ||350|
|Total loss (estimated) ||3,350|
or a net gain of 2250, which, added to the strength on May 31st, of 75,268, makes a maximum in the campaign of 77,518.
After making a liberal allowance for losses by sickness, straggling, guards to prisoners and casualties in the various encounters between June 1st and June 30th inclusive, it seems reasonable to conclude that General Lee had at his command on the field of battle, from first to last, an army numbering at least
70,000 men of all arms.
Consecration of the Gettysburg Cemetery, November 19, 1863--the gathering that President Lincoln addressed.
From a photograph. |