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Relative strength of the armies.

The consolidated morning reports of the Union Army for June 30th, 1863, give the numbers “actually available for line of battle,” or the effective force, including officers and men, as follows:

command. Cavalry. Artillery. Infantry. Total.
First Army Corps 67 619 9,403 10,089
Second Army Corps 82 551 12,363 12,996
Third Army Corps   677 11,247 11,924
Fifth Army Corps   555 11,954 12,509
Sixth Army Corps 124 1,039 14,516 15,679
Eleventh Army Corps 52 644 9,197 9,893
Twelfth Army Corps   396 8,193 8,589
Cavalry Corps 12,653 491   13,144
Artillery Reserve   2,211 335 2,546
Aggregate 12,978 7,183 77,208 97,369

Between June 30th and July 3d, the reinforcements that joined the army may be estimated as follows:

Stannard's brigade to First Corps 2,500
Lockwood's brigade to Twelfth Corps 1,700
Duvall's company Maryland cavalry to Gregg's cavalry division 60
Rank's Pennsylvania artillery to Gregg's cavalry division 50
Total reenforcements 4,310

This number, added to the strength as per returns of June 30th, makes a maximum of 101,679 effectives of all arms.

The severe marches following the roll-call of June 30th considerably reduced by sickness and straggling the strength of the commands, but a satisfactory computation of the shrinkage front these causes does not seem possible. It may have ranged from five to ten per cent. The field returns of the infantry and artillery of the army corps, for July 4th, give the following effective figures:

First Corps (except one regiment detailed as wagon guard) 5,430
Second Corps 6,923
Third Corps 6,130
Fifth Corps 9,553
Sixth Corps 12,832
Eleventh Corps 5,513
Twelfth Corps (except one Battery on reconnoissance) 9,757
total 56,138

Adding to this the loss of 21,905 sustained by the commands mentioned, gives an approximate calculation of the strength of the seven army corps, viz., 78,043.

There are no field returns of the Cavalry Corps or the Artillery Reserve for July 4th. But by assuming, in round numbers, 78,000 as the maximum fighting strength of the seven army corps, and adding 13,000 for the Cavalry Corps, and 2500 for the Artillery Reserve (as shown by the return for June 30th), an aggregate of 93,500 is obtained.

The effective strength as reported by the seven army corps commanders at the council held on the evening of July 2d, was as follows: “About 9000, 12,500, 9000, 6000, 8500, 6000, 7000,--total 58,000.”

Unfortunately the particular corps represented by these figures are not stated in the minutes of the council.

According to the returns of the Confederate Army for May 31st, 1863 (the latest immediately preceding the battle), the “effective total” of enlisted menwas:

Infantry 54,356
Stuart's Cavalry 9,536
Artillery 4,460

Alexander's and Garnett's artillery battalions, consisting of ten batteries, are not included in the above figures. Their effective strength may, however, be put at 800 officers and men. There were also 6116 officers borne on the return as “present for duty,” which, added to the foregoing, give an aggregate of 75,268 officers and men.

The accessions by organizations to the army between May 31st and July 3d, were as follows;

Estimated at not less than
1st. Pettigrew's infantry brigade 2,000
2d. Jenkins's cavalry brigade 1,600
3d. Imboden's cavalry brigade 2,000
Total gain 5,600

The loss by organizations during the same period was:

1st. Corse's brigade and one regiment of Pettigrew's brigade left at Hanover Court House, Va 2,000
2d. Three regiments of Early's division left at Winchester, Va 1,000
3d. One regiment of Stuart's cavalry left in Virginia 350
Total loss (estimated) 3,350

or a net gain of 2250, which, added to the strength on May 31st, of 75,268, makes a maximum in the campaign of 77,518. After making a liberal allowance for losses by sickness, straggling, guards to prisoners and casualties in the various encounters between June 1st and June 30th inclusive, it seems reasonable to conclude that General Lee had at his command on the field of battle, from first to last, an army numbering at least 70,000 men of all arms.

Consecration of the Gettysburg Cemetery, November 19, 1863--the gathering that President Lincoln addressed. From a photograph.

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