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Doc. 2.-secession reports.

Report of Brigadier-General Arnold Elzey.

Headquarters 4TH brigade, camp at Fairfax Station, July 25, 181.
sir: In compliance with your instructions, I have the honor to make the following report [43] of the services of my brigade during the day of the 21st. of July, 1861:

The brigade left Piedmont1 at daylight on the 21st inst., and after much delay and detention on the railroad, arrived at Manassas Junction about 12 M., when it received orders to detach a regiment to remain at the Junction to guard a weak point, and then to proceed to Lewis House, near the battle-field, and hold itself in waiting. Col. A. P. Hill's regiment, being the smallest--four companies not having come up from Piedmont — was designated for the service. Brigadier-General Smith accompanied the brigade to the battle-field, and continued to exercise the command over it with which he had been empowered at Piedmont. The march to the field, part of the way, was performed in double-quick. The battle raged fiercely, and Gen. Smith ordered the brigade to pass Lewis House and proceed to the scene of action.

On entering the field to the left, Gen. Smith was shot from his horse, and the entire command reverted to myself. The brigade was formed in line of battle, with the 10th Virginia regiment in reserve. About this time Captains Hill and Cunningham, of Gen. Smith's staff, reported to me. I detached Capt. Cunningham with four companies of the 10th Virginia regiment to hold a captured battery, and directed Capt. Hill to conduct Beckham's battery to a point on the left. The position was well selected, and the battery under Lieut. Beckham was admirably served and made a decided impression on the enemy. Having received intelligence that our left was weakened, I determined to make a movement in that direction, and accordingly. to march by the left flank through a wood to the left and then to the front. The brigade in line--3d Tennessee regiment on the right, 1st Maryland in the centre, 10th Virginia on the left — passed an open field and through a wood. On arriving at the edge of the woods, the enemy was discovered but a short distance in front, Stars and Stripes waving. I ordered the line to open fire. A brisk and terrific fire was kept up for a few seconds, and the enemy disappeared.

The command was ordered to advance, and on rising the crest of an open field, nothing could be seen but the dead bodies of men and horses. The line continued to advance, and on coming to a thicket in front, again encountered the enemy, and opened fire; the charge was ordered, the thicket cleared, and the enemy dispersed. I was ordered by Gen. Beauregard to retire with my command to the hill in rear, from which I subsequently took up a position across the stone bridge. It is with pride and pleasure that I refer to the coolness and gallantry of the whole command during the day. The fire upon the enemy was well-directed and destructive, and they sustained his fire with the indifference of veteran troops. The Maryland regiment was under Lieut.-Col. G. H. Steuart and Major Bradley T. Johnson; the 3d Tennessee under Col. Vaughan, Lieut.-Col. Reese, and Major Morgan, and the 10th Virginia regiment under Col. Gibbons, Lieut.-Col. Warren, and Major Walker.

I cannot speak too highly of the gallantry and good service of my personal staff, Lieutenants Chentney, McDonald, and Contee. They were repeatedly exposed to the enemy's fire in delivering orders, and rendered excellent service in obtaining information of his whereabouts. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Arnold Elzey, Brigadier-General Commanding 4th Brigade. To Major Thomas G. Rhett, Ass't Adj't-Gen.

Report of Capt. John D. Imboden, of the “Staunton artillery.”

Manassas Junction, Va., July 22, 1861.
Brigadier-General W. H. Whiting, Commanding the Third Brigade of the Army of the Shenandoah:
I submit the following summary report of the part taken in the engagement of yesterday, by the battery of the brigade — the Staunton Artillery--under my command. The battery arrived at Camp Walker, below the Junction, at half-past 11 o'clock the night before the battle, with men and horses greatly fatigued, by a forced march of thirty-two miles, commenced at daybreak over an extremely rough and steep, hilly road. Having had but four hours sleep, and that on the ground, without shelter, on a rainy night, since the preceding Wednesday night, at Winchester, and no food on Saturday, except breakfast which was kindly furnished us by some ladies at Salem, in Fauquier, my men were so tired on getting into camp that they threw themselves upon the ground to snatch a few hours' rest.

A little after sunrise on Sunday morning, the lamentable Gen. Bee sent for me to his quarters, and informed me of the approach of the enemy, and that he was ordered to “the stone bridge” with his brigade and a battery not so much exhausted as mine, and asked me if we would “stand that?” I replied, “Not if we can help it.” He then ordered me to put the battery in motion immediately, and let my wagons remain, and bring our rations and forage after us to the field. In about twenty minutes we were in motion, very much stimulated by a cannonade which had then opened so near Camp Walker that one of the balls came whizzing over us just as we started. After a rapid march of about five miles we met the infantry of the brigade, who had gone by a nearer route. Gen. Bee, in person, then joined the battery, and rode with us about a mile and selected the ground we were to occupy, and remained till after the firing commenced on both sides. To his consummate judgment in choosing our ground, we are indebted for our almost miraculous escape from utter destruction. We were placed on the slope of a hill facing to [44] the west, with a sight depression or ravine, running almost parallel with the base of the hill. We came “into battery” and unlimbered in this depression, being thus sheltered by a swell in the ground to our front five or six feet high. Our position commanded a beautiful open farm which rose gently from the valley in front of us, back to the woods about 1,500 yards distant. In the edge of these woods a heavy column of the enemy was marching to the southward, while we were descending the hill to our position. At the moment we wheeled into line, I observed one of their batteries of six guns do the same thing, and they unlimbered simultaneously with us. We immediately loaded with spherical-case shot, with the fuze cut for 1,500 yards. General Bee ordered me not to fire till they opened on me, as he had sent the Fourth Alabama regiment, Colonel Jones, across the valley to our right to occupy a piece of woods about 500 yards nearer the enemy, and he wished this regiment, together with one 6-pounder they had along with them, to get fairly in position before we fired. He had hardly uttered the order, however, when the enemy's battery--six long rifle 10-pounder Parrott guns, afterwards captured by our troops — within 150 yards of our first position, opened on us with elongated cylindrical shells. They passed a few feet over our heads, and very near the general and his staff in our rear, and exploded near the top of the hill. We instantly returned the compliment. Gen. Bee then directed me to hold my position till further orders, and observe the enemy's movements towards our left, and report to him any thing I might discover of importance. This was the last time my gallant, heroic general ever spoke to me. Seeing us fairly engaged, he rode off to take charge of his regiments. The firing of both batteries now became very rapid — they at first overshot us and burst their shells in our rear, but at every round improved their aim and shortened their fuze. In about fifteen minutes we received our first injury. A shell passed between two of our guns and exploded amongst the caissons, mangling the arm of private J. J. Points with a fragment in a most shocking manner. I ordered him to be carried off the field to the surgeon at once. He was scarcely gone when another shell exploded at the same place and killed a horse. About this time the enemy began to fire too low, striking the knoll in our front, from ten to twenty steps, from which the ricochet was sufficient to carry the projectiles over us; they discovered this, and again began to fire over us. After we had been engaged for perhaps a half hour, the enemy brought another battery of four guns into position about 400 yards south of the first, and a little nearer to us, and commenced a very brisk fire upon us. A shell from this last battery soon plunged into our midst, instantly killing a horse and nearly cutting off the leg of private W. A. Siders, just below the knee. He was immediately taken to the surgeon. A few minutes afterwards another shell did its work by wounding 2d Lieut. A. W. Garber so severely in the wrist that I ordered him off the field for surgical aid. We now had ten guns at work upon us, with no artillery to aid us for more than an hour, except, I believe, three rounds fired by the gun with the Alabama regiment. It ceased its fire, I have heard, because the horses ran off with the limber and left the gun without ammunition. During this time the enemy's infantry was assembling behind, between and to the right (our left) of their batteries in immense numbers, but beyond our reach, as we could only see their bayonets over the top of the hill. Two or three times they ventured in sight when the Alabamians turned them back on their left by a well-directed fire, and we gave them a few shot and shells on their right with the same result, as they invariably dropped back over the hill when we fired at them, as almost every shot made a gap in their ranks.

After we had been engaged for, I suppose, nearly two hours, a detachment of some other battery, (the New Orleans Washington Battalion, I believe,) of two guns, formed upon our right and commenced a well-directed fire, much to our aid and relief. My men by this time were so overcome with the intense heat and excessive labor, that half of them fell upon the ground completely exhausted. The guns were so hot that it was dangerous to load them--one was temporarily spiked by the priming wire hanging in it, the vent having become foul. My teams were cut to pieces, five of theo horses were killed out of one single piece, and other teams partially destroyed, so that, alone, we could not much longer have replied to the enemy's batteries as briskly as was necessary.

We were now serving the guns with diminished numbers--Lieuts. Harman and Imboden working at them as privates, to relieve the privates; the latter had the handspike in his hand directing his piece, when one of its rings was shot off the trail by a piece of a shell. After our friends on the right commenced firing, the enemy advanced a third battery of four pieces down the hill, directly in front of and about six hundred yards distant from us, upon which we opened fire immediately and crippled one of their guns by cutting off its trail, compelling them to dismount and send the piece away without its carriage. While this last battery was forming in our front, a vast column of thousands of infantry marched down in close order, about two hundred yards to its right. I did not then know where the several regiments of our brigade were posted. We heard firing upon our right and left, but too far off to protect us from a sudden charge, as we were in the middle of an open field, and not a single company of infantry visible to us on the right, left, or rear. At the moment the enemy's main column came down the lill, we observed the head of another column advancing down those valley from our left, and therefore concealed by [45] a hill, and not over 350 or 400 yards distant. At first I took them for friends, and ordered the men not to fire on them. To ascertain certainly who they were, I sprang upon my horse and galloped to the top of the hill to our left, when I had a nearer and better view. There were two regiments of them. They halted about three hundred yards in front of their own battery on the hill-side, wheeled into line, with their backs towards us, and fired a volley, apparently at their battery. This deceived me, and I shouted to my men to fire upon the battery, that these were friends, who would charge and take it in a moment. Fortunately, my order was not heard or not obeyed by all the gunners, for some of them commenced firing into this line, which brought them to the right-about, and they commenced advancing towards us, when their uniform disclosed fully their character. I instantly ordered the second section of my battery to limber up and come on the hill where I was, intending to open on them with canister. Anticipating this movement, and intending to make the hill to the left too hot for us, or seeing me out there alone, where I could observe their movements and report them, their nearest battery directed and fired all its guns at me at once, but without hitting me or my horse. I galloped back to my guns, and found that the two guns on our right had left the field, and we were alone again. My order to limber up the second section was understood as applying to the whole battery, so that the drivers had equalized the teams sufficiently to move all the guns and caissons, and the pieces were all limbered. On riding back a short distance, where I could see over the hill again, I discovered the enemy approaching rapidly, and so near that I doubted our ability to save the battery; but, by a very rapid movement up the ravine, we avoided the shells of the three batteries that were now directed at us, sufficient to escape with three guns and all the caissons. The fourth gun, I think, was struck under the axle by an exploding shell, as it broke right in the middle, and dropped the gun in the field. We saved the team. Their advance fired a volley of musketry at us without effect, when we got over the hill out of their reach, and a few moments afterwards heard the infantry engage them from the woods, some distance to the south of us. Seeing no troops where we first crossed the hill amongst whom we could fall in with and prepare for battle again, and having had no communication with or from any human being for, I suppose, three hours, and not knowing where to find our brigade or any part of it, I determined to retire to the next hill, some 400 yards distant, and there form the remnant of my battery, and await the opportunity for further service.

Just as we were ascending this second hill we met Gen. T. J. Jackson with the First Virginia brigade, hastening on to the. field of battle. I reported to him my condition and perplexity. He directed me to fall in between two of his regiments and return to the first hill again and fight with him. I did so with a remnant of my men and guns. The caissons, except one, were empty, and many of the men were ready to faint from sheer exhaustion. We got into position 300 or 400 yards north of the ground we at first occupied, within full view of the enemy's heavy column of divisions advancing towards us. We opened fire at once, but slowly, as we had not over four or five men left able to work the guns, respectively, and ammunition had to be brought from a caisson left two hundred yards in the rear, because we were unable to get it up with the guns. Every shot here told with terrible effect, as we could see a lane opened through the enemy after almost every fire. Our first gun was worked, during this part of the action, by the Captain, First Lieutenant, and two privates. In the course of three-quarters of an hour our supply of shot and shells was exhausted — the men could no longer work — we had nothing but some canister left, which was useless at so great a distance. A fresh battery came upon the field, arid Gen. Jackson ordered me to retire with my men and guns to a place of safety, which I did, and had no further part in the fight.

We were the first battery of the left wing of the army engaged. We were in the fight till near its close, having been engaged altogether upwards of four hours. We fired about 460 rounds of ball and case-shot, our whole supply, during the action. The only serious damage to my men I have mentioned above. Privates Points and Siders will doubtless get well, but will lose their wounded limbs. Lieut. Garber may save his hand.

Several others were slightly touched with fragments of shells, without injury. I had 71 horses on Sunday morning, before the battle commenced; 10 of those are killed and missing, and 21 more variously injured and at present wholly unserviceable, leaving me but 40 horses fit for work. My harness is half destroyed and lost. One piece is dismounted, but will be as good as ever when remounted on a new carriage. All my officers behaved throughout with heroic coolness and bravery, and the conduct of the men was that of veterans.

No company in the army was more exposed, and none, I believe, so long a time, and yet no man quailed. There were instances of individual heroism worthy of special notice; but where all did so well, it would seem almost invidious to single out individuals.

Respectfully submitted,

J. D. Imboden, Capt. Battery, 3d Brigade, C. S. A.

--Richmond Dispatch, July 26.

Report of Major Walton, of the Washington artillery.

Headquarters, Washington artillery, near Stone Bridge, Bull Run, July 22, 1861.
General: I have the honor to report:--On the morning of the 21st instant, (Sunday,) the [46] battalion of Washington artillery, consisting of four companies, numbering 284 officers and men and thirteen guns--six 6-pounders, smooth bore, four 12-pound howitzers, and three rifled 6-pounders, all bronze — under my command, was assigned to duty as follows:

Four 12-pound howitzers, under Lieutenant J. T. Rosser, commanding; Lieut. C. C. Lewis, Lieut. C. H. Slocumb, and Lieut. H. A. Battles, with Gen. Ewell's second brigade at Union Mill Ford.

Two 6-pounders, smooth bore, under command of Capt. M. B. Miller, Lieut. Joseph Norcom, with General Jones's third brigade, at McLain's Ford.

One rifled 6-pounder and one smooth 6-pounder, under command of Lieutenant J. J. Garnett, Lieutenant L. A. Adams, (reported sick after being engaged in the battle of the 18th inst.,) with General Longstreet's fourth brigade, at Blackburn's Ford.

Five guns-three smooth 6-pounders and two rifled 6-pounders — under command of Lieutenant C. W. Squires, Lieutenant J. B. Richardson, Lieutenant J. B. Whittington, with Colonel Early's fifth brigade, then bivouacking near McLean's farm-house--thirteen guns.

At about seven o'clock on the morning of the 21st an order was communicated to me to follow, with the battery under Lieutenant Squires, the brigade of General Jackson, then on the march towards Stone Bridge. Every preparation having been previously made, the order to mount was immediately given, and the battery moved forward, arriving at Lewis's farm-house, just in time to receive the first fire from the enemy's guns, then in position near Stone Bridge; here I was ordered to halt and await orders from General Bee. Shortly after half-past 8 o'clock A. M., I detached two rifle guns, under Lieut. Richardson, and took posisition about one-half mile to the left of Lewis's farm-house, where the enemy was found in large numbers. Fire was at once opened by the section under Lieut. Richardson, and continued with good effect, until his situation became so perilous that he was obliged to withdraw, firing whilst retiring, until his guns were out of range, when he limbered up and reported to me. In this engagement, one of the enemy's pieces was dismounted by a shot from the rifle gun directed by First Sergeant Owen, first company, and other serious work was accomplished. Now, under directions of Gen. Cocke, I took position in battery on the hill in front of Lewis's farm-house, my guns directed towards Stone Bridge, where it was reported the enemy was about to attack. Shortly before ten o'clock orders were communicated to me to advance with my battery to a point which was indicated, near the position lately occupied by the section under Lieut. Richardson. Hero we at once opened fire, soon obtaining range with the rifle guns against artillery, and the six-pounders, with round slot, spherical-case and canister, against infantry, scattering, by our well-directed fire, death, destruction, and confusion in the ranks of both; as the enemy's artillery would frequently get our range, we advanced by hand to the front, until finally the battery was upon the crown of the hill, entirely exposed to the view of their artillery and infantry. At this moment their fire fell like hail around us, the artillery in front of our position evidently suffering greatly from the concentration of fire from my guns and those of the battery on my right, and notwithstanding we were at this time subjected to a terrific fire of infantry on our left, my guns were as rapidly and beautifully served by the cannoneers, and with as much composure and silence, as they are when upon the ordinary daily drill.

The batteries of the enemy on our front having become silenced, and the fire of the infantry upon our left increasing, I considered it prudent to remove my battery from its then exposed condition, being nearly out of ammunition, (some of the guns having only a few rounds left in the boxes;) the order to limber to the rear was consequently given, and my battery, followed by the batteries on my right, was removed to its first position upon the elevated ground near Lewis's farm-house. At about one o'clock, as nearly as I can now calculate, Lieutenant Squires was detached with three six pounders and took position near the road leading to Stone Bridge, from Lewis's house, and directing against the enemy's artillery which had now opened fire upon our position from the vicinity of Stone Bridge. This fire having been silenced by some guns of Colonel Pendleton and the section of my guns under Lieutenant Squires, we discovered from the position on the hill the enemy in full retreat across the fields, in range of my rifled guns, when I opened fire upon their retreating columns, which was continued with admirable effect, scattering and causing them to spread over the fields in the greatest confusion, until I was ordered to desist by General Jackson, and save my ammunition for whatever occasion might now arise. Subsequently, I was permitted by General Johnston to open fire again, which was now, after having obtained the range, like target practice, so exactly did each shot do its work. The enemy, by thousands, in the greatest disorder, at a double-quick, received our fire and the fire of the Parrott gun of the battery alongside, dealing terrible destruction at every discharge. Thus ended the battle of the 21st, the last gun having been fired from one of the rifles of my battery

The guns of this battery, under command of Captain Miller, with General Jones's brigades, and Lieutenant Garnett with General Longstreet's brigade, were not engaged at their respective points, although under fire a portion of the day. The howitzer battery under Lieutenant commanding Rosser, with General Ewell's brigade, was on the march from two P. M., in the direction of Fairfax Court House, and, returning by way of Union Mills Ford, arrived [47] with the reserve at my position, unfortunately too late to take part in the engagement, notwithstanding the battery was moved at a trot and the cannoneers at a double-quick, the entire distance from Union Mills Ford.

In this battle my loss has been one killed, Sergeant J. D. Reynolds, Fourth company; two wounded slightly, Corporal E. C. Fayne, First company, and private Geo. L. Crulcher, Fourth company.

I cannot conclude this official report without the expression of my grateful thanks to the officers and men under my command for their gallant behavior during the entire day; they fought like veterans, and no man hesitated in the performance of any duty or in taking any position to which it was indicated they were required — in a word, I desire to say these men are entirely worthy of the noble State that has sent them forth to fight for the independence of the Confederate States. To Lieut. Squires commanding, I desire especially to direct your attention: a young officer, the second time under fire, (having been in the engagement of the 18th,) he acted his part in a manner worthy of a true soldier and a brave man. He is an example rarely to be met. Lieutenants Richardson and Whittington, both with this battery in the engagement of the 18th, were in this battle, and bravely did their duty. Lieut. W. M. Owen, adjutant, and Lieut. James Dearing, Virginia forces attached to this battalion, accompanied me. To them I am indebted for invaluable service upon the field; frequently were they ordered to positions of great danger, and promptly and bravely did they each acquit themselves of any duty they were called upon to perform.

I could mention individual instances of bravery and daring on the part of non-commissioned officers and privates, but this would be invidious where all behaved so well. In conclusion, General, I can only say I am gratified to know we have done our duty as we were pledged to do.

With great respect, I am, General,

Your obedient servant,

J. B. Walton, Major Commanding. To Brigadier General G. T. Beauregard, Commanding Division C. S. A.

Southern account of the battle, with notes by Brig.-Gen. Wm. F. Barry, U. S. A.

By Divine favor we are again victorious. To God be the glory. The armies of the North and South yesterday faced each other — the former not less than 50,000 men,2 the latter not exceeding 30,000--and wrestled together for six long hours, with that desperate courage which Americans only can show. I proceed to give you, as near as I can, a full and detailed history of that terrible battle, which will, through all time, make famous Bull Run and the plains of Manassas. On Friday, the 19th, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, who had commanded the army of the Shenandoah, posted at Winchester, arrived at Manassas Junction with four thousand of his division, to reinforce Gen. Beauregard. The remainder of his army (with the exception of a sufficient force to hold Winchester) were intended to arrive on Saturday, the 20th; but, in consequence of some railroad casualty, they did not reach the scene of conflict until Sunday, between the hours of 2 and 3 o'clock, when the battle was raging at its height.

The night before the battle, it was generally understood at Manassas Junction the enemy were gathering in great force, and designed turning our left flank, which rested a few miles above the scene of Thursday's engagement, at a ford on Bull Run, called Stone Bridge. We retired to rest under the full conviction that on the morrow the fortunes of our young nation were to be staked on a mighty contest, and we were not disappointed. There were not many spectators of the battle, the general commanding having, on Thursday, issued a general order requiring all civilians, with the exception of residents before military operations commenced, and those engaged necessarily in business at Manassas Junction, to leave the camp and retire beyond a distance of four miles. The writer, however, with the following named confreres of the press, were privileged to remain to witness a scene not often enacted, and which forms an era in their lives for all time to come; a scene of terrific grandeur and sublimity, which is imprinted on their memories with a recollection never to be effaced.

At seven o'clock on Sunday morning our party, consisting of Messrs. L. W. Spratt, of the Charleston Mercury; F. G. de Fontaine, of the Richmond Enquirer and Charleston Courier; P. W. Alexander, of the Savannah Republican; Shepardson, of the Columbus (Ga.) Times and Montgomery (Ala.) Advertiser, and your correspondent, started from Manassas Junction. The distant cannon, at short intervals since daybreak, had apprised us that the enemy were in motion, but in what direction we could only surmise until we reached a point a mile and a half from the breastworks, at the north-west angle of the fortifications of Manassas Junction. The day was bright and beautiful — on the left was the Blue Ridge, and in front were the slopes on the north side of Bull Run crowned with woods, in which the enemy had early planted his batteries, and all around us were eminences on which were posted small but anxious knots of spectators, forming the most magnificent panorama I ever beheld.

At about 8 o'clock we reached a hill above Mitchell's Ford, almost entirely bare of trees, and sufficiently high to afford an unobstructed view of the opposite heights. After taking a [48] leisurely survey of the beautiful landscape, spread out before us in all the loveliness and grandeur of nature, and listening with watchful intent to the booming of the heavy cannon on our right, and anxiously examining the locations where the guns of the enemy on the opposite hills were plainly to be seen with the naked eye, and the heavy clouds of dust rising above the woods in front and on either side, indicating the direction in which the heavy columns of the enemy were marching, we each sought the shade of a tree, where we drew forth our memorandum books and pencils, to note down for the information of the thousands, who looked to us for a description of the day's occurrences, the various shiftings of the scene which henceforth forms an era in the history of our young Confederacy, and grandly inaugurates the march of glory on which she has entered.

An interesting meeting took place between our party and the venerable Edmund Ruffin, who had against the walls of Fort Sumter fired the first defiant gun. He had come to this conflict with his eighty odd years weighing upon him, and his flowing white locks, to take part in this fight, encouraging our young men by his presence and example. Agile as a youth of sixteen, with rifle on his shoulder, his eyes glistening with excitement as he burned to engage the Yankee invader. Shortly afterwards Generals Beauregard, Johnston, and Bonham, accompanied by their aids, came galloping up the hill, and dismounted on the summit. The generals held an earnest conversation for a few minutes, while taking a survey of the field, and watching the excessive challenges from the enemy's batteries, directed against our right and among the woods near Mitchell's Ford, where a hospital was stationed and the yellow flag flying. This was also the point where their fire of Thursday was directed, and where the mark of a cannon ball is to be seen in the kitchen and stable of a house in which Gen. Beauregard dined on that day at the time the ball struck the building. Whether the enemy thought it was again his Headquarters, or whether the fire was playing toward that point to draw out a response from us, is not known. It is more likely, however, it was a mere feint — an impotent attempt to deceive our skilful and able commander as to the point where the enemy was most in force, for so our wise general considered it, as he was seen to direct Gen. Johnston's attention particularly with his hand towards our extreme left, as if he knew the struggle was to be made there.

I should here remark that it had been Gen. Beauregard's purpose to make the attack, instead of waiting to receive it; but from some cause unknown to me, he preferred at last to let the enemy take the initiative; perhaps for the reason that Gen. Johnston's division had been detained on the railroad. As I have said, Gen. Beauregard was not deceived, for the immense clouds of dust appearing above the woods indicated beyond a doubt the Federal columns were moving in solid masses in another direction, and one which was unmistakable. Just at this time, by the aid of our glass, we could see their guns brought to bear on the hill where we stood, for in a few moments the smoke was discovered issuing from their batteries of rifled cannon, and before scarcely a word could be said, the peculiar whiz and hizzing of the balls notified us that their aim had been well taken. Several balls fell in a field immediately behind us, and not a hundred yards from the spot where the generals stood. An officer of Gen. Beauregard's staff requested us to leave the hill, and as we moved away a shell burst not twenty feet off. Col. Bonner calculated with his watch the time taken by the balls to pass us, and made the distance 1 miles from the enemy's battery. The enemy no doubt discovered the horses of the generals, and thought it a good opportunity to display their marksmanship, and credit is due to them for the accuracy of their aim. Providence, however, who governs all things, covered the heads of our generals as with a shield, and preserved them for the hazardous service in which they were in a short hour or two to be engaged.

It was now about eleven o'clock, and the enemy having opened with rifled cannon and shell on their right, which they had continued for more than three hours without response, we heard away to the left, about three miles distant, the heavy booming of cannon, followed immediately by the rattling crack of musketry — the discharges being repeated and continuous — which notified us the engagement had commenced in earnest at that point, where the battle was to be fought and won.

Proceeding towards the scene of action about two miles, we came to a creek in the hollow where one of the hospitals for the day had been stationed, and the first wounded, some 29 or 30, had been brought. Dr. Gaston, of South Carolina, formerly a surgeon in Col. Gregg's regiment, but now attached to Gen. Beauregard's Headquarters, was assiduously attending to the wants of the wounded. At this point Generals Beauregard and Johnston, accompanied by a staff of some ten or twelve officers, passed at full gallop, riding towards their Headquarters for the day, which were on a hill immediately overlooking the ground where our brave soldiers were manfully and persistently struggling for the victory. A large force of cavalry were here stationed, and as the generals passed, they called for three cheers for Beauregard, which were immediately given with right good will, and which the general gracefully acknowledged by lifting his hat from his head and bowing his thanks.

Both of our generals were plainly dressed. No large epaulettes, no gilt, nor any fuss and feathers; you could only distinguish them at a distance to be officers by their swords, but on [49] a closer inspection the marks of genius and military skill were unmistakable. Their uniform was what I took to be plain undress. Not the least sign of excitement was to be seen on the countenances of either as they coolly rode forward into the storm of iron hail. Beauregard's eyes glistened with expectation, no doubt, when he afterwards threw himself into the very heart of the action, appearing then, as was afterwards most expressively said of him, to be the very impersonation of the “god of war.” General Johnston, too, looked every inch a commander, and proved himself to be the worthy inheritor of the prowess and virtues of his ancestors. On reaching the top of the hill, where was a white house, owned, I believe, by a Mr. Lewis, they were again discovered by the enemy, as the rifled shot and shell whizzed through the air and lodged in the hollow behind. The aim was not so good at this time, the accurate artillerists three miles below not having yet come up with the enemy's main body. At about 12 o'clock Beauregard and Johnston assumed the command of our main body at the Stone Bridge. The line of battle extended some seven miles up and down the creek, and during the day there were some minor engagements at other fords.

At Blackburn's Ford, General Jones's brigade made an attack upon the left flank of the enemy, who had two strong batteries in a commanding position, which it was important to capture. The Fifth South Carolina regiment led the attack, but our troops were compelled to retire for a while under the heavy fire of the batteries and musketry, and the enemy immediately retreated. Up to the time of this attack, these batteries had been bombarding all the morning Gen. Longstreet's position in his intrenchments on this side of the run.

General Evans, of South Carolina, was the first to lead his brigade into action at Stone Bridge. It consisted of the Fourth South Carolina regiment and Wheat's Louisiana battalion. Sustaining them was General Cocke's brigade, consisting of the 17th, 19th, and 28th Virginia regiments, commanded respectively by Colonels Cocke, Withers, and Robert T. Preston. These brigades were the first to bear the brunt of the action, as they were exposed to a concentric fire, the object of the enemy being to turn our left flank while we were endeavoring to turn his right. These regiments of infantry were sustaining the famous Washington Artillery, of New Orleans, who had two of their guns at this point, which made terrible havoc in the ranks of the enemy. The Federal troops leading the action consisted of 10,000 regulars, sustaining the celebrated Sherman's battery, these regulars being in their turn sustained by immense masses of volunteers, the New York Zouaves among the number. General Beauregard estimated the enemy's numbers in the action to be not less than 35,000 men.

Their artillery far outnumbered ours. We have captured 67 pieces of cannon, while we had only 18 guns on that part of the field.3 It has been stated to me by so many of our soldiers I cannot but believe it, that the enemy by some means had obtained our signal for the day — they also used our red badge, which fortunately was discovered in time, and they carried into action the flags of the Palmetto State and the Confederate States. It has been asserted, too, by numerous individuals engaged in the battle, that there was great confusion and slaughter among our own men, who mistook them for the enemy. This was less to be wondered at from the similarity of uniform and the mean advantages above referred to taken by our unscrupulous foes. They pressed our left flank for several hours with terrible effect, but our men flinched not until their number had been so diminished by the well-aimed and steady volleys that they were compelled to give way for new regiments. The 7th and 8th Georgia regiments, commanded by the gallant and lamented Bartow, are said to have suffered heavily during the early part of the battle. Kemper's, Shields', and Pendleton's batteries were in this part of the field, and did fearful execution. I regret to be unable to name all the regiments engaged, in their order, not having succeeded in ascertaining their position. I am inclined to believe there was some mistake during the day in the delivery or execution of an order of Gen. Beauregard's respecting an attack on the enemy's rear, which was not effected.

Between 2 and 3 o'clock large numbers of men were leaving the field, some of them wounded, others exhausted by the long struggle, who gave us gloomy reports; but as the fire on both sides continued steadily, we felt sure that our brave Southerners had not been conquered by the overwhelming hordes of the North. It is, however, due to truth to say that the result of this hour hung trembling in the balance. We had lost numbers of our most distinguished officers. Gens. Bartow and Bee had been stricken down; Lieut-Col. Johnson, of the Hampton Legion, had been killed; Col. Hampton had been wounded; but there was at hand the fearless general whose reputation as a commander was staked on this battle: Gen. Beauregard promptly offered to lead the Hampton Legion into action, which he executed in a style unsurpassed and unsurpassable. Gen. Beauregard rode up and down our lines between the enemy and his own men, regardless of the heavy fire, cheering and encouraging our troops. About this time a shell struck his horse, taking its head off, and killing the horses of his aids, Messrs. Ferguson and Hayward. Gen. Beauregard's aids deserve honorable mention, particularly those just named, and Cols. W. Porcher Miles, James Chesnut, John L. Manning, and A. R. Chisolm. Gen. Johnston also threw himself into the thickest of the fight, seizing the colors of a Georgia regiment, and rallying [50] them to the charge. His staff signalized themselves by their intrepidity, Col. Thomas being killed and Major Mason wounded.

Your correspondent heard Gen. Johnston exclaim to Gen. Cocke just at the critical moment, “Oh, for four regiments!” His wish was answered, for in the distance our reinforcements appeared. The tide of battle was turned in our favor by the arrival of General Kirby Smith, from Winchester, with 4,000 men of Gen. Johnston's division. Gen. Smith heard while on the Manassas railroad cars the roar of battle. He stopped the train, and hurried his troops across the field to the point just where he was most needed. They were at first supposed to be the enemy, their arrival at that point of the field being entirely unexpected. The enemy fell back, and a panic seized them. Cheer after cheer from our men went up, and we knew the battle had been won.

Thus was the best-appointed army that had ever taken the field on this continent beaten, and compelled to retreat in hot haste, leaving behind them every thing that impeded their escape. Guns, knapsacks, hats, caps, shoes, canteens, and blankets, covered the ground for miles and miles. At about 5 o'clock we heard cheer upon cheer, and the word “Davis” ran along the ranks, and we saw in the distance the tall, slender form of our gallant President, who had arrived upon the field in time to see the total rout of the army which threatened his capture, and the subjugation of the South.

The President left Richmond at 6 o'clock in the morning, and reached Manassas Junction at 4, where, mounting a horse, accompanied by Col. Joseph R. Davis and numerous attendants, he galloped to the battle-field, just in time to join in the pursuit by a magnificent body of cavalry, consisting of 1,500 men, commanded by Lieut.-Col. Stewart.4 This sight, of itself, was worth the fatigue of the day's journey. We saw the poor wounded soldiers on the roadside and in the fields, when they observed the President's manly form pass by, raise their heads, and heard them give shout upon shout and cheer upon cheer. It has been stated the President commanded the centre and joined in the charge; but this is a mistake. The train had been delayed, and arrived at the Junction two hours behind its time, which must have been a grievous disappointment. The Washington Artillery, who had drawn their guns up the hill and in front of the house known as Mr. Lewis's--Gen. Cocke's and Gen. Johnston's Headquarters, and which was riddled with shot — commanded by Major J. B. Walton in person, gave the enemy about this time a parting salute.

With the aid of our glass, which was more powerful than his own, he observed the carriage of a gun some two miles off. He gave the order for another fire, and Lieut. Dearing pointed the piece. Before the ball had well reached the point aimed at, a whole regiment of the enemy appeared in sight, going at “double-quick” down the Centreville road. Major Walton immediately ordered another shot “to help them along,” as he said, and two were sent without delay right at them. There was no obstruction, and the whole front of the regiment was exposed. One-half were seen to fall, and if Gen. Johnston had not at that moment sent an order to Major Walton to cease firing, nearly the whole regiment would have been killed. Of the Washington Artillery, only one member of the detachment was killed, viz., Sergeant Joshua Reynolds, of New Orleans, who was struck in the forehead while giving the word of command. Privates Payne and Crutcher were slightly wounded. Thus did 15,000 men, with 18 pieces of artillery, drive back ingloriously a force exceeding 35,000, supported by nearly 100 pieces of cannon. I believe the official report will sustain me in the assertion that Gen. Beauregard did not bring more than 15,000 men into the action. The total force under Gen. McDowell was over 50,000, but 35,000 will probably cover the entire force in action at the Stone Bridge.

Of the pursuit, already the particulars are known. Suffice it to say, we followed them on the Leesburg road and on the Centreville road as far as Centreville and Fairfax. The poor wretches dropped their guns, their knapsacks, their blankets, and every thing they had — they fell on their knees and prayed for mercy. They received it — Southerners have no animosity against a defeated enemy. We have captured 900 prisoners, and they will be treated with kindness. We have also captured 67 pieces of cannon, among them numerous fine pieces, Armstrong guns, and rifled cannon, hundreds of wagons, loads of provisions, and ammunition. The credit is accorded them: they fought well and long, but their cause was bad — they were on soil not their own, and they met their equals, who were fighting in defence of their homes, their liberty, and their honor.--Richmond Dispatch, and Baltimore Sun, August 1.

1 Piedmont is a station on the Manassas Gap Railroad below Front Royal. The delay alluded to is said to have been occasioned by a collision of some empty cars.

2 This is an error — the Federal force amounted to only 33,000, including reserves. Gen. McDowell's Report states 18,000 only were engaged. W. F. B.

3 The Federal forces had but 22 pieces on the field. The remainder of their artillery was in reserve.--W. F. B.

4 Soon after prayer in the Confederate Congress, on the morning of the 22d, the following despatch was read to that body:

Manassas Junction, Sunday night.
Night has closed upon a hard-fought field. Our forces were victorious. The enemy was routed, and fled precipitately, abandoning a large amount of arms, ammunitions, knapsacks, and baggage. The ground was strewed for miles with those killed, and the farm-houses and the ground around were filled with wounded.

Pursuit was continued along several routes towards Leesburg and Centreville, until darkness covered the fugitives. We have captured several field-batteries, stands of arms, and Union and State flags. Many prisoners have been taker. Too high praise cannot be bestowed, whether for the skill of the principal officers, or for the gallantry of all our troops. The battle was mainly fought on our left. Our force was 15,000; that of the enemy estimated at 35,000.

Another despatch says the entire Confederate force was about 40,000, and the entire force of the United States near 80,000.

No particulars are received of the dead and wounded.--Richmond Enquirer.

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