Accounts by an army Surgeon.
Frederick, Md., September 21, 1862.on Friday night, September fifth, I received a despatch from Col. Miles at Harper's Ferry, that the enemy would shortly be in Frederick, and advising me to burn my stores. I had every thing prepared, with plenty of turpentine and acids, also, in case of fire failing. There was great commotion in the city at the time, the secessionists being very unruly, and in firing my sheets, etc., my hospital steward had to threaten with his pistol several of the crowd who attempted to interfere. We were up that night until three o'clock, when we concluded to retire. Nothing happened until about nine o'clock next morning, when it was announced that the enemy was corning. Presently a refugee reported that it was Banks's force that was approaching, and the Unionists were again jubilant; but about half an hour after, a troop of gray-coated cavalry came riding over the hill beyond the hospital, just as I cut the halliards of my flag-pole to prevent the raising of a rebel flag over us. While I was in a distant portion of the hospital concealing some articles, a man rode in, and pointing a carbine at the officer of the day, demanded the surrender of the place in the name of the confederate States of America. Not being able to withstand the argument of powder and ball, he concluded to surrender, and the troop of cavalry passed in and took possession of the town. About ten o'clock the advance-guard, under Jackson, passed by with numerous pieces of artillery captured from us. The rebels jeered as they saw our sick soldiers, crying out, “Look at that cannon, that belongs to us now,” etc. I had been able, the light previous, to send off all my sick, except one hundred and twenty-six, who were paroled. Even several men who were dying protested against it; but it was done. They detained us in the grounds for twenty-four hours, in the interim marching in a brigade and camping in the grounds. Colonel Brad. Johnson ordered me to clear out of my barracks, and he quartered his troops in them, in my beds and the bedding, and moreover declared his intention to burn all the buildings before he left. However, in regard to this I wrote to General Lee, and he prevented it. Their reception in Frederick was decidedly cool; all the stores shut, no flags flying, and every thing partook of a churchyard appearance. The troops had marched from Leesburgh, twenty-three miles distant, since two A. M., crossing at Hauling Ford — a swift march, and more than our men could do. They were the filthiest set of men and officers I ever saw; with clothing that was ragged, and had not been cleaned for weeks. They could be smelt all over the entire inclosure. Jackson I did not get a look at to recognize him, though I must have seen him, as I witnessed the passage of all the troops through the town. The brigade in the grounds obtained some flour speedily, and commenced cooking rations for immediate use, and to be ready for a march. Their brigades were small, and horses and men all but starved. Every man seemed to have plenty of money, which they stated had been furnished to them freely to purchase whatever they wanted when they got to Philadelphia! The stores were entered, and the proprietors were either compelled to give their goods away or else take confederate scrip. Their behavior towards every one was very carefully managed — no bad treatment of any one was permitted. They broke into the Examiner office, but their Provost-Marshal caused every thing to be replaced and the offenders to be placed in the guard-house. No straggling was allowed, and although no discipline was observed, implicit obedience was maintained; for if a man declined or moved tardily, a blow from sabre or butt of a pistol enforced the order. It was stated by the men that four of the army had been shot for straggling since leaving Leesburgh. They were entirely in the dark as to their future movements, expecting, however, to go either to Baltimore or to Pennsylvania. During the day several medical officers called, among others a Dr. Coleman, Medical Director of Jackson. He was an Oily Gammon sort of an individual; very anxious about my instruments, quinine, etc.; but as we had either sent away or hidden these things, he got none. In the afternoon I saw brought in, a prisoner, one of the men of Best's battery--Sergeant Driscoll. Although no communication took place between us, I felt very certain that Banks's force was near at hand. From this circumstance all our hopes were much raised, but doomed to disappointment; for, as I afterward learned, he had been sent up here by the captain to purchase a wagon, not anticipating a rebel invasion.  Brad. Johnson during the day became drunk, and ordered Brigadier-General Cooper's (United States army) house to be taken for officers' quarters. This, however, was not carried out. Never before were we so anxious to get into town — not wishing to see any thing, but from the natural desire to feel myself free to move about. Such was my position for the first day, with one hundred and twenty-six sick, little provisions, and medicines and supplies not coming in. Evening--Secesh belonging to the city were disgusted with their friends, and the Unionists unterrified and talking loudly. No rebel flags had yet been displayed. All the doctors slept at the hospital, as the streets were filled with soldiers who had been drinking freely, though, to their credit, when they commenced drinking they speedily became dead drunk and were then harmless. Did any one of them attempt to create a disturbance, a guard would slip up to him and say something to him, and the songster would immediately cease his brawling and go quietly to the guard-house. The next morning who should pass in but------------. They respectively belonged to the Eighth and Twelfth Virginia regiments, and Tenth Alabama. I asked them to dine with me, as they presented a rather more respectable appearance than the rest. So I gave them a good dinner, which they said they duly appreciated, on account of its rarity. To keep on good terms with the rebel doctors who kept coming in to see us during the day, I opened some bottles of brandy, and how they did seem to enjoy it and the iced water! They asked to look at a piece of ice, as a curiosity. Constant movements of the troops were all the time taking place, and we could not then at all estimate their number — afterwards we had a better chance. On Sunday the churches were opened as usual, and Jackson attended the Presbyterian and German Reformed Church. At the latter place the minister, Dr. Zacharias, prayed for the President of the United States in a firm voice. While at the hospital this day the United States telegraph operator from the Monocacy Junction was brought in. He had been engaged telegraphing on the night of the entrance of the rebels into Maryland on the business of the railroad, had failed to receive notice of the enemy's approach, and was notified of their arrival by the entrance of the confederate General Hill, with one or two aids. The General told him he was a prisoner, and desired him to telegraph to Baltimore to send up a large train of cars, signing his (the operator's) name. He, however, told the General that the wires had just been cut. He was then desired to telegraph (to test him) that the rebels had arrived and that he was a prisoner. He returned the same answer, and one of the men with Hill then stepped forward and tried the instrument and reported the same thing. During the rebels' stay here, provisions became very scarce. All the stores were bought out. Coffee rose to one dollar per pound, and storekeepers increased their prices to a par with those of Richmond. The confederates offered to pay double price for every thing. A Union man from whom they wished to purchase forage, told them that their scrip depreciated the paper on which it was printed. All the while the enemy staid here we were continually excited by rumors of the approach of the Federal forces. At one time they were reported at Hanover; at another, to be within fifteen miles, etc. I took pains to learn the Star Spangled Banner on the piano, and played it with vim often during their stay here, greatly to the disgust of the passing soldiers. On Wednesday, the tenth, the army commenced moving at two A. M., Jackson leading off with about three thousand men, and the rest of the army, which had been camped near the Junction, followed, after having blown up the iron bridge of the railroad. A continuous stream of lousy, dirty men, with arms of all kinds, but good fighting material, was passing rapidly all day. I watched it all from the corner, and estimated their force, comparing my estimate with that of others, at seventy thousand men. Their supply-wagons were few in number and mostly empty. The men carried no knapsacks, merely a blanket, and many of them my hospital blankets, stolen from the beds, and ordinary accoutrements of cup, canteen, etc. During their passage I saw Lee riding in an ambulance, he having been recently injured by a fall from his horse; Longstreet, Anderson, Kemper, Evans, (of Ball's Bluff fame,) Cobb, (drunk,) Hill, and a number of others, whose names I've forgotten. Their army was divided into three corps--Jackson, Longstreet, and A. P. Hill--(General D. H. Hill commands a division.) During all day Thursday Stuart's cavalry held the town, Stuart and Lee dining in town. While the troops were passing, three small rebel flags were seen, and in one the Union or blue part was down, denoting distress. We enjoyed the mistake, and have since taken the hotel where it was displayed for a hospital. As the various divisions passed the hospital, they coolly dumped their sick at the hospital gate, and very soon I had nearly five hundred rebel sick with two rebel doctors with me. Gen. Lee sent word to me to retain charge of the hospital, and I did so, as I could thus better take care of my own sick and those left with me by them. The doctors who were with the regiments marching past rushed in, and helped themselves to liquors and medicines, but principally the spirits, as one of them said he used very little medicine with his men, it cost so much, and he, for his part, preferred whisky or brandy. As the troops filed up Patrick street, by way of Hagerstown, one of them asked, “Where does this road lead to?” To Hagerstown, he was told. “And which way is Baltimore?” he said. Fifty-five miles in the opposite direction, he was told. “The devil! Do you hear that, Bill? We are marching from instead of to Baltimore,” and they then had an excited conversation, and passed on. Twelfth September.--About ten o'clock our  pickets were announced approaching, and how every one brightened up is difficult to tell on paper. About six hundred cavalry were concealed in a bend in Patrick street awaiting their arrival. On our advance cavalry guard came. Charge! was the order on both sides, and a short skirmish took place in the streets opposite McPherson's house. I was within fifty yards of it and saw it. What an exciting time there was then! Pistols firing — men shouting and brandishing swords — horses plunging and tearing along as if mad, and cannon roaring, with shells exploding. It did not last three minutes, and yet on each side several were killed and eight or ten wounded. We lost a number of horses by a cavalryman (Federal) rushing back to the artillery and jumping upon the lanyard attached to the gun, causing a premature explosion of it. The wounded were brought to the hospital. From the top of a house the sight was magnificent, nothing but moving masses of men and gleaming bayonets visible — surging along like the flood-tide on a sandy beach--forty thousand men must have been in Burnside's corps. What a change then appeared in our truly rescued city! Flags of all size, and from every conceivable place, were displayed; stores were opened, and the houses were opened unanimously, and our tired soldiers fed in truly hotel style. When Burnside rode through, the acclamations were universal, but nothing to the reception given McClellan when he entered some time after. Bouquets were thrown; men, women and children rushed to him, he bowing and speaking to all; girls embracing his horse's neck, and kissing the animal, only because they could not reach the General. The reception given to the troops was most inspiring to them, as it had been believed by them that Maryland was not truly loyal.