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[576] concealed in an out-of-the-way place; and this was the experience along the whole route in the different counties. At nearly every occupied house was to be found a lot of chickens, and occasionally more or less turkeys, ducks, geese, and drakes, and not unfrequently small grunters were to be seen roaming through the fields at will. It was quite evident that there was no superabundance of food, but a good supply of apple-jack somehow could always be obtained at one hundred and twenty-five dollars per gallon — a price frequently paid. Confederate scrip was floating about so plentifully, that the price of the liquor made but little difference to the purchaser--one hundred and fifty dollars per gallon would have been paid just as willingly.

These people at home pretended that they had no choice as to which troops visited their plantations. The confederates took all they could find in the shape of provisions, and while they hoped to be excused from receiving visits from either, they thought they could be treated no worse by the Yankees. As you move toward the heart of rebeldom, the feeling of animosity is more intense in hatred toward Yankees. and is more openly manifested. Around the outer borders, where the people have more frequently seen Union troops, and know more of what is going on in the outside world, they seem to have enlarged and more liberal ideas; as you approach the centre more bigotry and intolerance, more outspoken hatred is met with. Until a point near Richmond was reached there was but little on the part of the people to indicate that we were moving among a united mass of enemies. On the Brook pike, within a few miles of Richmond, quite a number of very respectable-looking young women came out to the roadside and made use of some taunting expletives — such as no real lady would be guilty of — but judging from the surroundings, I suppose they were considered ladies at home. One of these women was almost frantic with indignation. “I never thought,” said she, raising her hands in holy horror, “that you would be mean enough for this.” This she repeated frequently as the column moved along. No one offered any disrespectful remark in reply. The boys were simply amused at her eccentric conduct. This course of conduct seemed to exasperate her; to have Yankee soldiers come there was bad enough, but to be laughed at by them seemed to her the very height of the intolerables.

Much has been said of the publicity given to this raid before the movement was commenced or immediately thereafter. It is undoubtedly true that a great many people knew that there was a movement on foot of some kind, but of what kind, or which way it was to go, or its destination, it seems nearly every one was in ignorance. The enemy knew nothing of the matter, and the correspondents in the field and at Washington, from the different publications in the papers, it is quite certain, knew but little more than the rebels. One paper recounts, in fearful terms, how that owing to the indiscretion of some nameless person, the enemy had met Kilpatrick in superior force at the very inauguration of the movement, and fears were entertained for the safety of the command. This class of correspondents show how much knowledge they had of the affair by still persisting in the statement that Kilpatrick left Stevensburgh on Saturday evening, when without much trouble, they might have known that he did not move until Sunday night. Old sores are always tender, and a newspaper in the habit of being beaten in news is frequently stirred up to commit indiscretions. The truth of the matter is, that, whether any of the newspapers did or did not act prematurely in publishing the movements of General Kilpatrick, the enemy did not take advantage of it. The picket at Ely's Ford knew nothing of it, and the column moved to Beaver Dam on the Central Railroad, before hearing a hostile shot. So skilfully managed, indeed, was the whole affair, that the announcement of General Kilpatrick crossing the Rapidan was made in the Richmond papers on the very day he arrived before that city. The pickets within three and a half miles of Richmond were captured before they were aware that an enemy's force was near them; and wherever the column moved before reaching Richmond, the enemy were taken by surprise and were entirely unprepared to resist the movement.

Captain Armstrong, of the Commanding General's staff, besides his regular duties, had charge of the distributing of the President's Amnesty Proclamation. Printed in small pamphlet form, this production was scattered broadcast everywhere. It was placed in the hands of the people, left in their houses, churches and shops, stowed away in books and in every conceivable nook and corner, so that if any large portion of the people are disposed to suppress the only public document emanating from Mr. Lincoln which has not been reproduced in the Richmond papers, they will hardly be able to accomplish their purpose.

The negroes everywhere, as usual, manifested great delight at seeing a column of Yankees, and acted unreservedly, as though they expected to find them all friends, and aided the expedition in various ways. They could always tell where corn could be found for the horses, and where provisions and horses had been concealed. They frequently gave valuable information as to the location of the enemy's pickets, of the presence of scouts in the neighborhood, and could tell when the last confederate soldier had passed along the road. These services were rendered freely and without hesitation, often without the asking. Their services were brought into requisition in destroying railroads, and in one instance, at least, continued the work of destruction after the troops had left the spot, saying, as the column moved off: “We'll catch up.” Nearly all asked permission to come along, and many did so without asking the privilege, seeming to take it as a matter of course they were expected to join the command. There was no large number of negroes in any one place; but there were a few found in


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