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Doc. 98.-attack on Springfield, Mo.

Report of Colonel Crabb.

headquarters South-Western District, Mo., Springfield, January 10, 1863.
General: Owing to the illness of Gen. Brown, and by his request, I have the honor to submit the following report of an engagement at this place on the eighth instant, between the Federal forces, commanded by Brigadier-General Brown, and a rebel force under the command of General Marmaduke:

On Wednesday, the seventh instant, about three o'clock P. M., General Brown received the (first) information that the enemy, estimated from four to six thousand strong, had forced our troops to abandon “Lawrence Mills;” that they had burned the mill and block-house there, and were rapidly approaching this place, by way of Ozark. Not having a force sufficient at that place to contend with the enemy, they were ordered to fall back on this place, with instructions to destroy what Government property they could not carry with them, which order was promptly executed. The enemy entered Ozark a few minutes after our forces had evacuated it. They destroyed the block-house, and then continued their march on this place. Messengers were despatched to the various stations around Springfield to send in reenforcements, and the E. M. M. was ordered into service. The night of the seventh was spent in making preparations to meet the enemy.

Under the supervision of Lieutenant Hoffman, of Bachof's First Missouri light artillery, two twelve-pound iron howitzers and one six-pound piece, were mounted on wheels as temporary carriages, taken to the blacksmith shop, repaired, and rolled into the fort Number Four by daylight of the eighth instant. Dr. S. H. Melcher mustered some three hundred convalescents from the various hospitals, who were armed and equipped; also, near one hundred soldiers who had recently been discharged from the same, under command of Capt. McAfee, were armed, and many loyal citizens turned out willingly, and were armed to fight in the defence of their homes.

At an early hour on the morning of the eighth, about two hundred or three hundred of the enrolled Missouri militia reported for duty. Scouting-parties were sent to the south and south-east, for the purpose of ascertaining the whereabouts of the enemy, and report their movements. At ten A. M. of the eighth the scouts and pickets on the south of the town were fired upon and driven in by the advance of the enemy. They were soon discovered some two or three miles off, formed in line of battle, and advancing slowly across the prairie, from the direction of Ozark. About one half of their command was dismounted, acted as infantry, supporting a battery of some three pieces of artillery, (one piece rifled,) which formed their centre, while their right and left wings were formed of heavy bodies of cavalry. In this manner, with skirmishers and sharp-shooters thrown forward, they advanced steadily and slowly, occasionally halting and firing a shot from their rifled piece, apparently trying the range and feeling their way. The cavalry, under command of Colonel King, Third Missouri State militia, Colonel Hall, Fourth Missouri State militia, were ordered forward to meet the advancing foe.

By order, several houses were burned south of the fort, to prevent the enemy from occupying them, and that the artillerymen and riflemen in the fort could have an unobstructed view of their approach. As the enemy continued to advance, the firing became more frequent. Our artillery opened fire upon them as soon as they came within range of our guns. Our cavalry gradually retired within supporting distance of the fort. The artillery and riflemen in the fort drove back the enemy's sharp-shooters. The firing gradually increased until about one o'clock P. M., when the forces on both sides were fiercely engaged. Colonel King was ordered to charge with his regiment the enemy's right. He drove them back, when they turned their artillery and sharp-shooters upon him. At this time Colonel Hall, with the Fourth cavalry, Missouri State militia, by order, moved forward and engaged their centre, fighting with coolness and bravery, entitling them to high honor: The cavalry being exposed in the open field to the fire of the enemy's [347] artillery and infantry, and fearful they would be cut to pieces, they were ordered to retire under protection of the fort, which order was executed promptly and in good order, bringing with them their wounded. The enemy threw forward a regiment of cavalry on our left, which was promptly checked by the Second battalion, Fourteenth Missouri State militia, cavalry, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Pounds. Meantime the enemy were busy with their artillery, throwing shot and shell at the fort and into the houses occupied by our troops. Our artillery before mentioned, under command of Lieutenant Hoffman, and one field-piece, under command of Captain Landes, Eighteenth Iowa infantry, were driving back the enemy's centre.

But the firing from the guns inside the forts, though well aimed, was not sufficiently rapid, owing to their being manned by volunteers with only five artillery soldiers at the three pieces. The enemy, about two P. M., massed their forces and advanced on our centre and right. Captain Landes with his piece of artillery was ordered to advance to the front and right of the fort, which order he promptly executed. He was supported by parts of three companies of the Eighteenth Iowa, under their respective commanders, Captains Blue, Van Meter, and Stonaker. This piece of artillery, owing to some mistake in the delivery of the order, was placed in a very exposed position. The enemy, perceiving this, made a desperate charge upon it with overwhelming numbers, killing the horses and driving back the support, and captured it after a hard and bloody contest. Captains Blue and Van Meter fell mortally wounded, and Captain Landes and many of their brave comrades fell severely wounded, while some were killed. It was now between two and three P. M. The enemy had captured one piece of artillery, at the same time had taken possession of an unfinished stockade fort that had been used as a prison, and were pressing hard on our centre and right. The “Quinine brigade,” which was placed under my command, and who, up to the time, were stationed in various brick buildings in and around the centre of the town, were ordered to move to the front and attack the enemy. I had the honor to lead them in person, assisted by Lieutenant Root, of the Nineteenth Iowa, Lieutenant Wilson, of the Eighteenth Iowa, and Lieutenant Bodenhammer, of the Twenty-fourth Missouri volunteers.

We advanced to the front and west of the fort, and took a position behind a fence, and about fifty to seventy-five yards from the rebels, who were likewise posted behind fences, and in and around a house to our front. After fighting for near an hour, the enemy gave way and fled precipitately from this part of the field. In the mean time they were making strong efforts to turn our right, land after being driven from our centre, threw their main force forward for that purpose, when they were met by the Seventy-second regiment, E. M. M., under the command of Colonel Sheppard, the “Quinine brigade,” under the command of Lieutenants Root, Wilson, and Bodenhammer, and Captain McAfee, who repulsed them. There were also engaged at this time the Third cavalry, M. S. M., Fourth cavalry, M. S. M., and the Second battery, Fourteenth M. S. M., and five companies of the Eighteenth Iowa, two of which had recently come to our support, under the command of Capt. Evans. The enemy had gained possession of several houses, and were pouring into our ranks volley after volley of musketry, while they were endeavoring to dislodge them.

The cause became desperate; the enemy were pressing hard upon our brave men, and they were yielding before the overwhelming numbers brought against them, when General Brown and staff rode forward to encourage them, when he was treacherously shot from a house by some hidden foe, and fell from his horse.

He immediately remounted, but was unable to remain in the saddle, and was carried off the field.

This was about four o'clock P. M., when I received an order from the General to take command, which I immediately complied with. The fighting at this time was hard. It was one continuous roar of musketry and artillery.

The enemy had advanced at a point beyond the range of the small arms of the fort, but the artillery continued to pour a heavy fire of shot and shell into their midst, which would cause them to falter, but they would again and again rally.

The stockade fort, which they had previously taken possession of, gave them great protection, and in and around which they would mass their forces, and from which they would make their charges. They would drive our men, and then, in turn, be driven back. A little after five o'clock the made the most desperate effort that they had made during the day, to drive back our forces, by throwing their whole force upon our centre and right wing, (but mainly upon the centre.) A party of the Seventy-second E. M. M., Fourth cavalry, M. S. M., (dismounted,) the Second battalion, Fourteenth cavalry, M. S. M., (dismounted,) part of five companies of the Eighteenth Iowa infantry, and the “Quinine brigade,” amounting in all to about eight hundred men, had to oppose tile major part of the rebel army, amounting to three or four times their own number. But our troops met them promptly, and fought them most gallantly for near one half hour, when a part of our lines began to give back. At this critical time an officer commanding a company in the Second battalion, Fourteenth M. S. M., ordered his men to horse, (as I was afterward informed,) and the whole battalion came running in great confusion to the rear and took to horse. I tried in vain to rally them — they seemed panic-stricken. This caused a partial giving way among the other troops.

I had no difficulty in rallying them, and they went again into the fight. It was now near dark, and the enemy were making an additional demonstration on our left.

By this time, Lieutenant-Colonel Pound commanding, [348] had succeeded in re-forming the Second battalion, Fourteenth Missouri State militia. I ordered him to advance on the enemy's right, which order he promptly executed. The enemy fired but a few rounds and again retired, leaving us in full possession of this part of the field. Five additional companies of the Eighteenth Iowa, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Z. Cook, came to the rescue, whooping and cheering, which gave fresh courage to our brave men, who immediately drove the enemy before them and back into the stockade fort. Colonel Cook's troops arrived too late to take an active part in the engagement. Darkness coming on, the firing gradually ceased; after which all was quiet, save occasional firing from the artillery. The enemy, under cover of the darkness, withdrew from the field, carrying away part of their dead and wounded. I expected them to renew the attack on the following morning. On the morning of the ninth, they appeared in full force to the east, and about one mile from town.

Preparations were made to receive them. A cavalry force was sent forward to engage then and check their advance. But they declined another engagement, and retired in haste. We did not have sufficient force to pursue them. We did not have at any one time during the day more than nine hundred to one thousand men engaged. The enemy had some four thousand men, under the command of General Marmaduke, and Shelby, Gordon, Gilkey, Elliott, McDonald, and others, (with three pieces of artillery,) who came with the full expectation of an easy conquest. They had invited their friends in the country to come, and bring their wagons — promising them all the booty they could carry. But thanks to a kind Providence, brave hearts, and strong arms, they were most signally defeated in their designs of plunder. The Seventy-second regiment E. M. M., under command of Colonel Henry Sheppard, fought well and faithfully during the entire contest. Companies A, C, F, G, and H, of the Eighteenth Iowa--numbering one hundred and fifty-six men — fought as “Iowa boys” know how to fight. Their heavy loss and bloody record is proof of their valor. The “Quinine brigade” (made up of men from Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, and other States) fought like “heroes,” “Spartans,” and “veterans,” as their respective commanders report. All the troops, with a few exceptions, did their duty.

I cannot forbear to say that to the vigilance of General Brown, his promptness in preparing to meet the enemy, and to his coolness, courage, and personal supervision of the troops in battle, while under his command, are we in a great measure indebted for our success. He has, by his conduct, endeared himself to those under his command. Lieutenant Richard Root, company K, Nineteenth Iowa, (who arrived during the fight,) Lieut. S. A. Wilson, company F, Eighteenth Iowa, Lieut. Bodenhammer, and Captain McAfee, who were in command of the “Quinine brigade,” and Captain W. H. Evans, of company F, Eighteenth Iowa, Dr. Whitney, of the Fourth M. S. M., (cavalry,) (who took a gun and fought,) and the Rev. Mr. Wynes, Post Chaplain, (who, in the face of the enemy, assisted in removing the wounded from tile battle-field,) deserve great praise for their gallant conduct during the engagement. I am under many obligations to Major Steger, Lieutenants Campion and Blodget, (members of General Brown's staff,) for the efficient service they rendered me. There are many other officers and men deserving of honorable mention. We lost fourteen killed, one hundred and forty-four wounded, and four missing--making a total of killed, wounded, and missing, one hundred and sixty-two.

The enemy's loss cannot be definitely ascertained. Their own estimate of their losses range from two to three hundred killed and wounded. Among their slain is a major. We captured several prisoners, and among them two commissioned officers. We buried a part of their dead, and have some sixty to eighty of their wounded to take care of.

I send herewith attached a detailed report of the killed, etc.

I have the honor to remain, your most obedient servant,

B. Crabb, Colonel Commanding. Major-General S. R. Curtis, Commanding Department of the Missouri.

General Holland's report.

headquarters Fourth District, E. M. M., Springfield, January 11, 1863.
Colonel: I have the honor to submit the following report;

On the evening of the seventh inst. Brigadier-General E. B. Brown, commanding South-west department of Missouri, received intelligence from a scouting-party, composed of detachments of the Fourteenth M. S. M. and Seventy-third regiment E. M. M., under command of Captain Burch, that a large force of the enemy, said to be six thousand strong, under command of Gen. Marmaduke, were moving on Lawrence Mill, Taney County, from Dubuque, Ark., with the intention of attacking this place, to capture the depot of arms and stores, and to destroy all communication with the army of the frontier and St. Louis.

Immediately orders were despatched by me to Colonel Johnson, Twenty-sixty regiment, Col. Sheppard, Seventy-second regiment, Col. Boyd, Seventy-fourth regiment, E. M. M., to call in all their furloughed men, and concentrate them immediately at this post; also to detached companies in Dade and Lawrence counties.

In the course of the night information was received confirming the report of the enemy's advance. At daylight on the eighth, the troops stationed at Ozark arrived, reporting the enemy had arrived and burned their post; and by ten o'clock A. M., our pickets were attacked, and he appeared on the edge of the prairie, south-cast of town.

The enemy at once planted his battery, and commenced firing upon the town and Fort No. 4, [349] commanding the approach from the south, while the cavalry, consisting of detachments of the Third, Fourth, and Fourteenth M. S. M., were formed on the left of the fort, charged on the enemy's right.

General Brown formed his line of battle with detachments of cavalry on the left, south-east of town, a detachment of the Eighteenth Iowa infantry on their right; Fort No. 4, mounting two guns, garrisoned with company C, Col. Boyd's Seventy-fourth regiment, E. M. M., Capt. Phillips and convalescent soldiers, commanded by Lieut. Hoffman, of the First Missouri artillery, connected with the army of the frontier; and a brick college inclosed on three sides with palisades, used for a military prison, being the centre. Colonel Sheppard's regiment E. M. M. infantry to the right of the college, flanked on his right by detachments of cavalry, with Fort No. 1 about one half-mile to the rear, being the extreme right, which was garrisoned by the Eighteenth Iowa and citizens.

The skirmishing with cavalry on our left, with artillery-firing, continued with but trifling loss until two o'clock P. M., when the enemy extended his left, and advanced his right and whole line toward Fort No. 4. After some sharp fighting he was repulsed from the fort, but succeeded in capturing one piece of artillery, which, in charge of a small detachment of the Eighteenth Iowa, was advanced too far to the front, the horses being killed, and the men compelled to retire with heavy loss. Upon the repulse from Fort No. 4, the enemy combined his attack upon our right wing, composed of Colonel Sheppard's regiment, when the hardest and most decisive fighting of the day took place.

This regiment maintained its ground against overwhelming numbers, for more than an hour, of the enemy's whole infantry, assisted by three pieces of artillery. The two guns from Fort No. 4 played upon the enemy during the latter part of the time, with considerable effect.

Colonel Sheppard was compelled to fall back in the direction of Fort No. 1, taking advantage of the scattered houses to continue tile fight as they retired. After falling back some three hundred yards, they were rallied, and made a spirited charge upon the enemy, driving them back south of the Fayetteville road, being assisted on their left by a detachment of Iowa troops under Colonel B. Crabb.

The enemy succeeded in gaining possession of the college building, a strong position, enabling their sharp-shooters to check our further advance until night closed the contest.

Late in the day, Major A. C. Graves, of my staff, Brigade Commissary, who was acting as aid-de-camp, was mortally wounded, shot by a musket-ball in left breast. Lieutenant D. J. McCroskey, company A, Seventy-second regiment, E. M. M., killed; Major John Hornbeak, wounded in arm ; Lieutenant W. F. Lane, company E, Seventy-second regiment, leg broken; Sergeants Burling and Campbell killed, and Sergeant Raimy mortally wounded.

Annexed in hand is a statement of killed, wounded, and missing, of my command.

I take pleasure in reporting the valuable aid afforded me by members of my staff on the field, Majors Sheppard, Bishop, Graves, and Clarke. Also, volunteer aid, Lieutenant Mathis of Eighth Missouri cavalry, volunteers.

I am proud to report the bravery of my command, being raw troops, who have been greatly maligned by enemies of the Union, and some politicians of the State, and can assure the Commander-in-chief of their readiness to defend the Constitution and support the Government of the United States and this State, not only with words, but by the sacrifice of their lives, as they have so abundantly proved by their conduct on the now still more memorable day, the eighth of January.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. B. Holland, Brig.-Gen. Commanding Fourth District, E. M.M. To Col. Wm. D. Wood, Acting Adjutant-General, Mo.

New-York times account.

Springfield, Mo., Monday, January 12, 1863.
On Thursday, the eighth of January, the anniversary of the battle of New-Orleans, a body of rebels under Marmaduke, attacked the city of Springfield, Mo. A battle was fought in the southern suburbs of the town, and the enemy was promptly and effectually repulsed. So much the telegraph informed the readers of the Times, several days ago. If steam will do its work as well as lightning, they shall now have a detailed and authentic account of the fight.

General Marmaduke, the commander of the rebel forces in this battle, is, I believe, a graduate of West-Point. Next to General Price, he is the most highly esteemed officer, from Missouri, in the confederate army. In the earlier battles of Cave Hill and Prairie Grove, however, in which he commanded a brigade, he was twice defeated. Marmaduke's brigade is composed of the flower of the Missouri rebel troops, and embraces three regiments, which are commanded respectively by Cols. Gordon, Gilkey, and Thomson. The latter was formerly Coffee's own regiment. In the batle of Springfield, Marmaduke acted as commander of a division, including Shelby's brigade, as well as his own, with the St. Louis Legion under Emmet McDonald, and some other fragmentary squadrons of cavalry. His troops were all cavalry, except one battery of artillery.

The officers whom I have named, foiled in their previous attempts to enter Missouri, determined to proceed down the Arkansas River to Spadry's Bluff, near Clarksville; and thence to make a daring raid upon Springfield, leaving the army of the frontier so far to the west as to be ignorant of the movement, until it should be too late to prevent it. The object of this raid was the destruction of the vast quantities of commissary and quartermaster's stores which are here. Had it been as successful in its execution as it was bold in its conception, the army of the frontier [350] would have been reduced to terrible straits, and might, perhaps, have even fallen a prey to Hindman.

Before describing the actual conflict, it may be well to mention the condition of affairs in Springfield, before the battle.

The city of Springfield, like most towns in the South and West, is laid out around a large public square in the centre. The court-house, the bank, the hotels, the principal stores — in fact, all prominent edifices — are on or near the central square. From this geographical and mercantile focus, the four principal streets proceed, east, west, north, and south, at right angles to each other. The other streets of the city are parallel to these. In the system of fortification adopted, for the defence of Springfield, the forts are placed as follows:

Fort No. 1 is near the west street, a little north of it, and about one mile from the square. This is a pentagonal fort, with five bastions, and is almost impregnable. It incloses ten acres of ground, and is provided with wells, and a magazine. Its parapet and ditch are each twenty feet in width. It wants but little of entire completion.

Near the same street, but a little south of it, and at about the same distance from the centre of the city, is Fort No. 2, upon a hill directly opposite Fort No. 1. In its present unfinished condition, this fort would be of more service to an enemy attacking us than to ourselves.

On the south street, within the city limits, not one half-mile from the public square, is Fort No. 4, which was the only fort directly attacked by the enemy on last Thursday. It is a small but strong work, with two bastions, one of which projects across the south street, and commands the road in both directions.

Fort No. 5 is another unfinished work upon the east street, about half-a-mile from the square. Other forts are projected, but not yet begun.

The city thus fortified lies half in the prairie and half in the timber. Upon the north and east all is forest; upon the south and west the country<*>s entirely open. The rebels chose to make their attack from the south, which was an error, for two reasons. First, because they were more exposed to our view, in their advance from the south, than they would have been from the east; secondly, because the north and east side of the town were not defended by forts.

At the time of the battle the army of the frontier was at Fayetteville, and in that vicinity. The militia, under Generals Brown and Holland, were very much scattered over South-West Missouri. There were in Springfield not more than one thousand five hundred troops capable of service, if indeed there were so many; while Marmaduke's men numbered from two thousand to two thousand five hundred. Our men were nearly all State militia and enrolled militia, except the Eighteenth Iowa infantry, who were raw; while Marmaduke's command had been seasoned in numerous engagements. The rebels doubtless supposed that we would surrender or retreat at the first fire.

Until the very night before the attack, their approach was entirely unknown, except to a few of their own friends. On Wednesday evening reports were brought to General E. B. Brown, commander of the district of South-West Missouri, that five or six thousand rebel cavalry were moving northward from White River, for an attack on Springfield. Whether the report was true or false, it was impossible to determine, but every preparation was made to defend the place from any force which might make its appearance. During the night the Commissary removed fifty thousand rations to Fort No. 1. The Medical Director organized and armed the “Quinine brigade” of convalescents from the various hospitals. The Quartermaster loaded all his wagons and started them north toward Bolivar. Cannon were mounted on Forts Nos. 1 and 4; ammunition distributed, scouts sent out, hospitals prepared for the reception of the wounded, despatches sent to St. Louis — in a word, the night was turned into day. Even some of the secesh women here were busy, preparing to feast the rebel officers, upon their arrival. At least three rebel spies were in town that night, and Emmett McDonald, the long-haired, sent word by one of them to Mrs.----, that he would take tea with her on Thursday.

On Thursday morning the work of preparation was continued, although the general feeling among the soldiers was: “We may hold the town, and we will not give it up without a fight; but we shall probably be whipped.”

At one o'clock the enemy showed themselves upon the prairie south of the town. Without one word of notice to remove the women and children, they opened fire upon the town with solid shot, though they knew that scores of their own friends, both women and prisoners, were exposed to the same danger as our loyal citizens. I had thought that this infamy was reserved for Marmaduke alone; but I learn that Hindman did the same thing at Van Buren, in Arkansas. “Gentlemen,” said General Brown, who stood on the south-west bastion of Fort No. 4, “this is unprecedented; it is barbarous!”

After several shots from the rebels, our cannon replied, Gen. Brown himself directing the firing. His courage was conspicuous. As the balls whistled close over our heads, the men and even some of the officers would dodge, but the General stood immovable, proudly erect.

The fight then opened with some skirmishing of the cavalry. Our cavalry was posted in front, a half-mile south of Fort No. 4. My blood quickened its flow, as I watched our brave boys gallop forward to the charge, then saw the enemy galloping in a long line to meet them, and heard the sharp, rapid firing of carbines, on both sides. After each charge and fire, both parties would turn and gallop back, with small loss on either side.

This did not last long. The Third M. S. M., (cavalry,) under Col. King, retired to a line running east from the fort; the Fourth M. S. M., (cavalry,) under Col. Hall, retired to a line running west from the fort, and the enemy made their first attack upon Col. King's side. The Seventy-second [351] enrolled militia, (infantry,) under Colonel Henry Sheppard, were ordered forward with two or three companies of the Eighteenth Iowa infantry, and one brass piece. The enemy moved their battery to a point directly in front of ours, and fought for some time, but with little audacity; then abandoned the attack at this point.

Upon the other side of the fort, and within rifle-range, was a two-story brick building, designed for an academy, but occupied during the summer and winter as a prison for rebels. Around this building was a stockade, fifteen feet high, with loop-holes for muskets. The rebels now determined to approach the fort under cover of this stockade.

After marching back, therefore, they moved in first-rate order, and upon the double-quick, to our right. I must state here, that at this time they were all dismounted and fighting on foot. Having a shorter distance to traverse, they arrived first, and took their position in the following order: Next to the fort were the enrolled militia; upon their right was the Third M. S. M.; and the Fourth M. S. M. were still further to the right. The line extended nearly to Fort No. 1, in which were stationed the Eighteenth Iowa. In Fort No. 4 were the Quinine brigade and some other fragments of companies.

The enemy now approached in good order, until they came within gun-shot, when they began to crawl upon the ground, like Indians, with admirable skill, from one stump to another, sheltering themselves as much as possible, but keeping up a deadly fire. Not many hundred men were engaged at this time, but the crack of rifles was continuous, like the roll of thunder, and the enemy's grape hurtled along over our heads in a way that was dangerous. Col. Sheppard's regiment of enrolled militia bore the brunt of the fight. They had never before been in battle, but they stood their ground like heroes, until the fire became too hot to be endured, when they fell back slowly and in good order, but steadily, in spite of all efforts on the part of their officers to stay them. Their retreat enabled the rebels to take possession of the stockade around the academy, and to approach near enough to the fort to engage the Quinine brigade, who opened a murderous fusilade over the parapet, killing some within fifty yards of the ditch.

Finding it impossible to rally his men, General Holland, of the E. M. M., gave the order to fall back on Fort No. 1. The regiment went steadily back, going slower and slower, until they became ashamed of going back at all. General Holland, perceiving that their courage was returning, cried, “Follow me!” and dashed forward, followed by the whole line, who set up a yell of defiance and delight.

At the same time Gen. Brown proposed to his, body-guard to charge, which they did in gallant style, the General riding at their head, almost into the very midst of the rebels. Some miserable wretch took too good aim at him. A ball struck him in the left arm, shattering the bone up to the socket. He fell from his horse and was carried off the field. The command thenceforth devolved upon Colonel Crabb, of the Nineteenth Iowa.

From this time, the fight was carried on, upon both sides, entirely from behind fences and houses, with little method, and with still less organization. Every man took his own station, and fired at his own pleasure. After the militia stopped retreating and again began to advance, they never lost an inch of ground. The rebels were driven out of one house after another, back to the stockade, from which it was impossible to dislodge them.

As the militia advanced, a brass piece, with two companies of the Eighteenth Iowa, was ordered forward to their support; but, in consequence of some unaccountable blunder in conveying the order, it passed along the wrong street, and actually took its position upon a street-corner in the rear of the stockade, and outside our lines. The enemy saw their advantage, made a rush, and captured the cannon, after shooting every horse, both captains, one lieutenant, and more than half the men.

At night the battle ended, having lasted five hours. Time never before seemed to me to pass so rapidly. The enemy had suffered more severely than we. Their loss was probably over two hundred; but ours was nearly one hundred and fifty killed and wounded, out of not more than one thousand. The enrolled militia, who are universally acknowledged to have been the heroes of the day, had lost more than one sixth of their entire number. Out of our little army, twenty commissioned and non-commissioned officers had fallen.

At the close of the day, the Eighteenth Iowa, from Fort No. 1, marched out South street, in splendid order. A cry was raised that we were reenforced. The men set up a tremendous shout, which must have stricken terror to the hearts of our besiegers ; for although they largely outnumbered us, and had actually gained a foothold within the limits of the city, they retreated with all possible silence and secrecy, under cover of the night. They carried their wounded with them, except about eighty, who fell into our hands. They left seventeen dead upon the field, and twenty-four graves of others were afterward found in Col. Phelps's field, south of the town. Among their killed and wounded officers were Major Bowman, Captains Flint, Frazier, Fitsworth, and Woodsmall; and Lieutenants Richardson, Buffington, M. P. Stewart, and F. M. Green.

On Friday morning, the current of feeling in our midst had changed. Our troops were confident and even exultant. They awaited the renewal of the attack, not only with equanimity, but with eagerness. We were, however, disappointed. The battle was not renewed, although a small party of rebel cavalry made a feint at the eastern side of the town, to amuse us and cover the retreat of the main body.

The scenes in Springfield among the women and children were interesting. Our secessionists were delighted in the morning, at night crestfallen. Several loyal families were reft of all property [352] by the conflagration of their houses. Dwelling-houses in all parts of the city were pierced with shot and shell. In several houses shell had exploded. One exploded in a room where there were four women and two children lying upon the floor, covered with feather-beds. Windows were shattered by bullets, fences were torn down and destroyed; in many places the ground was soaked with blood. Ruin and desolation were everywhere. But our victory compensates for all, for by that victory we have saved the army of the frontier.

Among our own officers killed and wounded, were Brig.-Gen. E. B. Brown, of the M. S. M.; Major John Hornbeak, Major A. C. Graves, Captains Blue, Landis, and Van Meter, of the Eighteenth Iowa; Lieutenants H. W. Blodgett, A. D. C., A. B. Conway, John Vaughn and D. J. McCroskey.

Special praise is due to the enrolled militia, part of the Eighteenth Iowa, the Quinine brigade, and the citizens, who fought as desperately as the trained soldiers.

Too much praise cannot be awarded General Brown, for his promptness, courage, discretion, and decision; I may add, for his fortitude, also. He has been much overlooked by higher authorities, much maligned by some of those under him, and even accused of cowardice. But his men now regard him with universal confidence and affection. There is one general feeling of sympathy for him, and of regret that his arm is ruined. It was not amputated, but four inches of the bone next the shoulder-joint, including the ball which fitted into the socket, have been extracted, leaving his arm to hang helpless at his side forever.

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