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Major-General Franz Sigel

was born in Sinsheim, Baden, November 18, 1824, and was graduated from the Military School at Carlsruhe, becoming a champion of German unity and minister of war to the revolutionary Government of 1848, which was overthrown by Prussia. Later, having withdrawn to Switzerland, the Government expelled him, and he emigrated to America in 1852. He taught in a military institute in St. Louis and edited a military periodical. When the Civil War broke out, he organized the Third Missouri Infantry and an artillery battery, and after assisting Captain Lyon in the capture of Camp Jackson, he served in Missouri, at Carthage and at Springfield. As brigadier-general of volunteers, he was conspicuous for his bravery at Pea Ridge, and as major-general of volunteers was placed in command of Harper's Ferry in June, 1862. Then he served in the Army of Virginia, in command of its First Corps, out of which the Eleventh Corps, Army of the Potomac, was created. He relinquished the latter in January, 1863. On March 10, 1864, he succeeded Brigadier-General B. F. Kelley in the command of the Department of West Virginia, but after the defeat at New Market, May 15th, he was relieved by Major-General Hunter and given the division at Harper's Ferry, where he successfully held out against Lieutenant-General Early. In July, 1864, he was relieved from his command, and he resigned from the army in May, 1865. After the war, he edited a German paper in Baltimore, and later was register and United States pension-agent in New York city. He was well known as a lecturer and editor of the New York Monthly, a German periodical. He died in New York city, August 21, 1902.

Major-General Carl Schurz

was born in Cologne, Prussia, March 2, 1829, studying there in the gymnasium and later at the University of Bonn. He was engaged in the revolutionary movement in 1848, and was compelled to seek refuge in Switzerland. In 1852, he came to the United States and settled in Philadelphia, later going to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he began the practice of law. Lincoln appointed him United States minister to Spain, but he resigned to take part in the Civil War. As brigadier-general of volunteers, he commanded a division of the First Corps, Army of Virginia, at Second Bull Run, and at Chancellorsville a division of the Eleventh Corps. At Gettysburg he had command, as major-general of volunteers, of the Eleventh Corps, temporarily, and again in January and February, 1864. At Chattanooga, he took an active part. In March, 1864, he was put in charge of a corps of instruction near Nashville, and at the close of the war was chief-ofstaff to Major-General Slocum in the Army of Georgia. He resigned from the volunteer service in May, 1865, and became a newspaper correspondent in Washington, and, in 1866, founded the Detroit Post. He was senator from Missouri (1869-1875), and Secretary of the Interior from 1877 to 1881, and editor of the New York Evening Post from 1881 to 1884. He was an enthusiastic advocate of civil-service reform and other political movements. He was a writer and speaker of note, and died in New York city, May 14, 1906.

Twelfth Army Corps

Created September 12, 1862, from the Second Corps, Army of Virginia, the troops of which, under Major-General N. P. Banks, had been in the Department of the Shenandoah, and in earlier organizations of the Army of the Potomac. It was the smallest corps in the army, and in the early days contained about twelve thousand men. The command was given to Major-General J. F. K. Mansfield, who was killed at Antietam, the first battle of the new corps. Its next battle was that of Chancellorsville where, with the Third, it bore the real brunt of the fight. After Gettysburg, in which we remember the Twelfth by its gallant defense of Culps' Hill, it went with Hooker to Tennessee where one division opened the line of supplies to the starving Army of the Cumberland and fought ‘the battle in the clouds’ on Lookout Mountain. In April, 1864, the Twelfth Corps was merged in the newly formed Twentieth, for the Atlanta campaign. After Mansfield's death, the command of the Twelfth Corps was held by Major-General H. W. Slocum except for very brief periods, when it was headed by Brigadier-General A. S. Williams, the senior division commander. In its short career, the corps is said to have never lost a gun or a color.

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