; born in Beverly, Mass.
, Aug. 13, 1831.
He was graduated at the United States Military Academy in 1854.
entered the Corps
of Engineers, in which he reached the rank of colonel, and was retired in 1895.
In the Civil War
he commanded the siege artillery of the armies operating against Richmond
, designed the systems of submarine mine defences and of mortar batteries for the government, and was brevetted major-general of volunteers and brigadier-general U. S. A.
After his retirement he designed the new harbor at Manitowoc, Wis.
, and was a member of the Technical Committee of the New Panama Canal Co.
His publications include Siege artillery in the campaign against Richmond
; Experiments to develop a system of submarine mines
; and Physics and Hydraulics of the Mississippi
, the last in co-operation with General Humphreys
He received the degree of Ll.D. from Harvard
, and became a member of many scientific societies.