Lawyer; born in Germany
, in December, 1847; was brought to the United States
in infancy by his parents, who settled near Mansfield, O.
; received a public school education; entered the Union
army in 1863, and served till the close of the war. In 1869 he was admitted to the Missouri
bar; in 1874 was elected State attorney of Andrew county, Mo.
; in the following year removed to Chicago
; in 1886-91 was judge of the superior court of that city; and in 1893-97 was governor of Illinois
His action in pardoning (June 27, 1893) Fielden
, and Neebe
, who had been imprisoned for complicity in the Haymarket atrocity by alleged anarchists, excited strong and general criticism (see anarchists
). His publications include Our penal machinery and its victims
; Lice questions
; Its requirements and its rewards