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City. county seat of Anne Arundel county, and capital of the State of Maryland: on the Severn River, 20 miles south by east of Baltimore: is the seat of the United States Naval Academy and of St. John's College; population in 1890, 7,604; 1900, 8,402. Puritan refugees from Massachusetts, led by Durand, a ruling elder, settled on the site of Annapolis in 1649, and, in imitation of Roger Williams, called the place Providence. The next year a commissioner of Lord Baltimore organized there the county of Anne Arundel, so named in compliment to Lady Baltimore, and Providence was called [165] Anne Arundel Town. A few years later it again bore the name of Providence, and became the seat of Protestant influence and of a Protestant government, disputing the legislative authority with the Roman Catholic government at the ancient capital, St. Mary's. In 1694 the latter was abandoned as the capital of the province, and the seat of government was established on the Severn. The village was finally incorporated a city, and named Annapolis, in honor of Queen Anne. It has remained the permanent political capital of Maryland. It was distinguished for the refinement and wealth of its inhabitants and extensive commerce, being a port of entry long before the foundations of Baltimore were laid.

On the morning of Oct. 15, 1774, a vessel owned by Anthony Stewart, of Annapolis, entered the port with seventeen packages of tea among her cargo, assigned to Stewart. When this became known, and that Stewart had paid the duty on the tea, the people gathered, and resolved that the plant should not be landed. Another meeting was appointed, and the people declared that ship and her cargo should be burned. Stewart disclaimed all intention to violate non-importation agreements, but the people were inexorable. They had gathered in large numbers from the surrounding country. Charles Carroll and others, fearing mob violence, advised Stewart to burn the vessel and cargo with his own hands, which he did. The vessel was run ashore and destroyed, when the people cheered and dispersed. This was the last attempt at importation of tea into the English-American colonies.

On April 14, 1755, General Braddock and Commodore Keppel, with Governors Shirley, of Massachusetts; De Lancey, of New York; Morris, of Pennsylvania; Sharpe. of Maryland, and Dinwiddie. of Virginia. held a congress at Annapolis. Braddock had lately arrived as commander-in-chief of the British forces in America. Under his instructions, he first of all directed the attention of the government to the necessity of raising a revenue in America. He expressed astonishment that no such fund was already established. The governors told him of their strifes with their respective assemblies, and assured Braddock that no such fund could ever be established in the colonies without the aid of Parliament. The Congress then resolved unanimously that it was the opinion of its members that it should be proposed to his Majesty's \ministers to “find out some method of compelling” the colonists to establish such a public fund, and for assessing the several governments in proportion to their respective abilities. At once all the crown officers in America sent voluminous letters to England, urging such a measure upon the government.

On July 26, 1775, a convention assembled at Annapolis, and formed a temporary government, which, recognizing the Continental Congress as invested with a general supervision of public affairs, managed its own internal affairs through a provincial Committee of Safety and subordinate executive committees, appointed in every county, parish, or hundred. It directed the enrolment of forty companies of minute-men, authorized the emission of over $500,000 in bills of credit, and extended the franchise to all freemen having a visible estate of £ 210, without any distinction as to religious belief. The convention fully resolved to sustain Massachusetts, and meet force by force if necessary.

Gen. B. F. Butler was in Philadelphia on April 19, 1861, when he first heard of the assault on Massachusetts troop in Baltimore. He had orders to go to Washington through Baltimore. It was evident that he could not do so without trouble, and he took counsel with (Gen. Robert Patterson, the commander of the Department of Washington. He also consulted Commodore Dupont, commander of the navy-yard there, and it was agreed that the troops under General Butler should go from Perryville, on the Susquehanna, to Annapolis, by water, and thence across Maryland, seizing and holding Annapolis Junction by the way. Butler laid before his officers a plan which contemplated seizing and holding Annapolis as a means of communication, and to make a forced march with a part of his troops from that port to Washington. He wrote to the governor of Massachusetts to send the Boston Light Artillery to Annapolis, and the next morning he proceeded with his troops to Perryville, embarked in the powerful steam ferry-boat Maryland. and [166] at a little past midnight reached Annapolis. The town and Naval Aeademy were in the hands of the Confederates, and were all lighted up in expectation of the arrival of a body of Confederates, by water, from Baltimore, to assist them in seizing the venerable and venerated frigate Constitution, lying there, and adding her to the Confederate navy. The arrival of these troops was just in time to save her. Many of Butler's troops were seamen at home, and these assisted in getting the Constitution to a place of safety beyond the bar. Governor Hicks was at Annapolis, and advised Butler not to land Northern troops. “They are not Northern troops,” said Butler. “They are a part of the whole militia of the United States, obeying the call of the President.” This was the root of the matter — the idea of nationality as opposed to State supremacy. He called on the governor and the mayor of Annapolis. To their remonstrances against his landing and marching through Maryland, Butler replied that the orders and demands of his government were imperative, and that he should land and march on the capital as speedily as possible. He assured them that peaceable citizens should be unmolested and the laws of Maryland be respected.

On the 22d the New York 7th Regiment, Colonel Lefferts, arrived at Annapolis on a steamer. All the troops were landed and quartered at the Naval Aeademy. The Confederates, meanwhile, had torn up the railway, taken the locomotives to pieces, and hidden them. Terrible stories reached Butler of a great force of Confederates at Annapolis Junction. He did not believe them, and moved on, after taking formal military possession of Annapolis and the railway to Annapolis Junction. Two Massachusetts companies seized the railway station, in which they found a disabled locomotive concealed. “Does any one know anything about this machine?” inquired Butler. “Our shop made that engine, general.” said Charles Homans, of the Beverly Light Guard. “I guess I can put her in order and run her.” “Do it,” said the general: and it was soon done, for that regiment was full of engineers and mechanics. It was a remarkable regiment. Theodore Winthrop said that if the words were given, “Poets, to the front!” or, “Painters, present arms!” or, “Sculptors, charge bayonets!” there would be ample responses. The hidden rails were hunted up and found in thickets, ravines, and bottoms of streams, and the road was soon in such a condition that the troops moved on, on the morning of the 24th, at the rate of about one mile an hour, laying the track anew and building bridges, Skirmishers went ahead and scouts on the thanks. The distance to the Junction from Annapolis was 20 miles. They saw none of the terrible Marylanders they had been warned against. The troops reached Annapolis Junction on the morning of the 25th, when the 7th Regiment went on to Washington and the Massachusetts regiment remained to hold the railroads. Other troops arrived at Annapolis, and General Scott ordered Butler to remain there, hold the town and road, and superintend the forwarding of troops to Washington. The Department of Annapolis was created, which embraced the country 20 miles on each side of the railway to within 4 miles of the capital. The 7th Regiment were the first troops that reached Washington after the tragedy at Baltimore a week before. See Baltimore.

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