Born about 1580, at Kipling
, Yorkshire, Eng.
; was graduated at Oxford
; travelled on the Continent; became secretary of Robert Cecil
; married Anne Minne
in 1604; was a clerk of the privy council; was knighted in 1617; became a secretary of state soon afterwards, and in 1620 was granted a pension of $5,000 a year.
When, in 1624, he publicly avowed himself a Roman Catholic
, he resigned his office, but King James retained him in the privy council; and a few days before that monarch's death he was created Baron
in the Irish peerage.
had already entered upon a colonizing scheme.
In 1620 he purchased a part of Newfoundland
, and was invested with the privileges and honors of a count-palatine.
He called his new domain Avalon, and, after spending about $100,000 in building warehouses there, and a mansion for himself, he went thither in 1627.
He returned to England
the following spring.
In the spring of 1629 he went again to Avalon, taking with him his wife and unmarried children.
The following winter was a severe one, and he began to contemplate a desertion of the domain on account of the rigorous climate.
He sent his children home.
In the autumn he actually abandoned Newfoundland
, and with his wife and retainers sailed to Virginia
, where, because he refused to take the oath of allegiance, he was ordered away by Governor Harvey
His wife and retainers remained there during the winter.
Going from there in the spring, it is supposed he explored the shores of Chesapeake Bay
, and close that region for a settlement.
In 1632, Lord Baltimore obtained a charter from Charles I. of the territory on the Chesapeake
now forming the State of Maryland
. “What will you call the country?”
asked the King
referred the matter to his Majesty. “Then let us name it after the Queen
” (Henrietta Maria
), said Charles, “and call it Mariana
The expert courtier dissented, because that was the name of a Spanish historian who taught that “the will of the people is higher than the law of tyrants.”
Still disposed to compliment the Queen
, the King
said, “Let it be Terra Mariae
And it was named Maryland
Before the great seal of England
was affixed to the charter, Lord Baltimore died, April 15, 1632, and was succeeded by his son Cecil
Cecilius or Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore,
Was born about 1605.
Very little is known of his early life.
When he was about twenty years of age
he married Anne, the beautiful daughter of the Earl
, who was one of the most influential Roman Catholics in the realm.
On the death of his father, the charter for Maryland
was issued to Cecilius, his eldest son and heir, June, 1632; and he immediately prepared to sail for the Chesapeake
with a colony.
When he was about ready to depart, he changed his mind, and sent his brother Leonard, as
governor, with his brother George, and two assistants and counsellors, Jeremy Hawley
and Thomas Cornwallis
, both Protestants.
The whole company, who sailed in two vessels — the Ark
--numbered over 300, according to Lord Baltimore, who wrote to his friend Wentworth
(afterwards the unfortunate Earl
: “By the help of some of your lordship's good friends and mine, I have sent a hopeful colony into Maryland
, with a fair and favorable expectation of good success, without any great prejudice to myself, in respect that many others are joined with me in the adventure.
There are two of my brothers, with very near twenty other gentlemen of very good fashion, and 300 laboring men.”
As most of the latter took the oath of allegiance before sailing, they were probably Protestants.
Father Andrew White
, a Jesuit priest, accompanied the expedition.
They sailed from the Isle of Wight
, and took the tedious southern route by way of the Canaries.
The vessels were separated by a furious gale, but met at Bermuda
, whence the emigrants went to the Chesapeake
, founded a settlement, and established a government under the charter, which was nearly the same in form as all charters then granted (see Maryland
). It conferred on the proprietor absolute ownership of the territory, and also the civil and ecclesiastical power of a feudal nature.
Entire exemption from taxation was conceded to the colonists.
As an acknowledgment that the original title to the land was still in the possession of the crown, the proprietor was required to pay to the King
the tribute of two Indian arrows.
was a member of Parliament in 1634, but mingled very little in public affairs afterwards.
He never came to America
, but managed his province by deputies forty-three years. His course towards the colonists was generally wise and conciliatory, because it was profitable to be so. In religion and politics he was very flexible, being quite indifferent to either, and he did very little for the religious and intellectual cultivation of the colonists.
Negattively good, he was regarded with great respect by all parties, even by the Indians.
He died in London
, Nov. 30. 1675.
Succeeded his father as lord proprietor of Maryland
He was born in London
in 1629; appointed governor of Maryland
in 1661; and married the daughter of Hon. Henry Sewall
, whose seat was on the Patuxent river
After the death of his father he visited England
, but soon returned.
In 1684 he again went to England
, and never came back.
He was suspected of favoring King James II, after the Revolution, and was outlawed for treason in Ireland
, although he was never in that country.
The outlawry was reversed by William and Mary in 1691.
Charles Lord Baltimore was thrice married, and died in London
, Feb. 24, 1714.
Succeeded his father, Charles, in 1714.
In 1698 he married Lady Charlotte Lee
, daughter of the Earl
(granddaughter of the notorious Duchess
, the favorite mistress of Charles II.), from whom he was divorced in 1705.
publicly abjured the Roman Catholic
faith in 1713, and died in 1715, only thirteen months after the death of his father.
Was born Sept. 29. 1699, and was an infant in law when he succeeded to his father's title.
In July, 1730, he married the widow Mary Janssen
, youngest daughter of Gen. Theodore Janssen
His life was spent chiefly in England
In 1731 he was appointed gentleman of the bedchamber to the Prince
, and soon afterwards was elected Fellow of the Royal Society.
He was in Parliament in 1734, and in 1741 was appointed Junior Lord
of the Admiralty
In the spring of 1741 he was appointed cofferer to the Prince
and surveyor-general of the Duchy lands in Cornwall
After having ruled Maryland
in person and by deputy more than thirty years, he died April 24, 1751, at his home in London
Frederick Calvert, sixth and last Lord Baltimore,
Was born in 1731, and succeeded to the title of his father, Charles Calvert
II., in 1751.
He married Lady Diiana Egerton
, youngest daughter of the Duke
, in 1753.
He led a disreputable life, and died at the age of forty, at Naples
, Sept. 14, 1771.
Yet he was a patron of literature and a friend and companion of the Earl
). In 1767 he published an account of his Tour in the East
He was a pretentious author of several other works, mostly of a weak character.
Lord Frederick bequeathed the province of Maryland
, in tail male, to Henry Harford
, then a child, and the remainder, in fee, to his sister.
the Hon. Mrs. Norton
. He left an estate valued at $5,000.
The last representative of the Baltimore
family was found in a debtors' prison in England
, in 1860, by Col. Angus McDonald
, of Virginia
, where he had been confined for twenty years. Henry Harford
was the last proprietor of Maryland
See Calvert, Leonard.