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French in 1640 at the Sault Ste. Marie, when they numbered about 2,000. They were then at war with the Iroquois, the Foxes, and the Sioux; and they drove the latter from the head-waters of the Mississippi and from the Red River of the North. The French established missionaries among them, and the Chippewas were the firm friends of these Europeans until the conquest of Canada ended French dominion in America. In 1712 they aided the French in repelling an attack of the Foxes on Detroit. In Pontiac's conspiracy (see Pontiac) they were his confederates; and they sided with the British in the war of the Revolution and of 1812. Joining the Miamis, they fought Wayne and were defeated, and subscribed to the treaty at Greenville in 1795. In 1816 they took part in the pacification of the Northwestern tribes, and in 1817 they gave up all their lands in Ohio. At that time they occupied a  vast and undefined territory from Mackinaw along the line of Lake Superior to the Mississippi River. The limits of this territory were defined by a treaty in 1825, lands to the United States for equivalent annuities. All but a few bands had gone west of the Mississippi in 1851; and in 1866 the scattered bands in Canada, Michigan, on the borders of Lake Superior, and beyond the Mississippi numbered more than 15,000. Their religion is simply a belief in a good and evil spirit, and the deification of the powers of nature. Various denominations have missionaries among the Chippewas. In 1899 there were 3,410 Chippewas at Devil's Lake agency, North Dakota; 4,682 at La Pointe agency, Wisconsin; 7,833 at White Earth agency, Minnesota; and 6,630 Chippewas and Ottawas combined at the Mackinac agency, Michigan.
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