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Cushing, Frank Hamilton 1857-

Ethnologist; born in Northeast, Pa., July 22, 1857; became interested early in life in collecting Indian relics. In 1875 he was commissioned by Prof. Spencer F. Baird to make surveys and collections for the National Museum; in 1876 was the curator of the ethnological exhibit of the National Museum at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia; in 1879 was assistant ethnologist with Major J. W. Powell in the expedition to New Mexico; and at his own request was left with the Zuni Indians, where he lived for three years, and later for three additional years; acquired their language and traditions; was initiated into their priesthood; and was thus the first white man to learn the true character of Indian secret societies. In 1881 he discovered the ruins of the Seven Cities of Cibola, and conducted excavations among them and the great buried cities in southern Arizona. In 1895 he discovered the extensive remains of a sea-dwelling people along the Gulf coast of Florida, and in 1896 led there the Pepper-Hearst expedition. Was author of The myths of creation; Preliminary report of Pepper-Hearst expedition on the ancient Key dwellers of Florida; The arrow; and many official reports and papers. He died in Washington, D. C., April 10, 1900.

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